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“Hundred Years’ War and the Plague” CHAPTER 14-4.

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1 “Hundred Years’ War and the Plague” CHAPTER 14-4

2  Pope and King Collide-  In 1300, Pope Boniface VIII asserts authority over France’s Philip IV  Philip has pope imprisoned  Pope dies soon after A CHURCH DIVIDED

3  In 1305, French pope is chosen; moves to Avignon-city in France  In 1378, two popes chosen  One in Rome  One in Avignon  Each declares the other false, causing split called Great Schism AVIGNON AND THE GREAT SCHISM

4  1414 Council of Constance tried to pick just one pope  Now there were three popes  All popes resigned  1417 one “new” final pope picked, ending schism

5 John Wycliffe 1320 – 1384 John Hus 1369 – 1415 Bay of Biscay These two priests planted the seeds for the “Protest” and call for “Reform” in the Church… that 100 years later would erupt as the official “Protestant Reformation” led by priest Martin Luther… All three would be excommunicated for their blunt attacks on the Church. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

6  Englishman John Wycliffe argues Jesus is head of the Church, not the pope  Wycliffe preaches against wealth and worldliness of clergy  Wycliffe inspires English translation of New Testament SCHOLARS CHALLENGE CHURCH AUTHORITY

7  Jan Hus-  a Bohemian professor-teaches that Bible is final authority, higher than the pope  Excommunicated  Tried as heretic  Burned at stake in 1415

8  A deadly epidemic that killed about one- third of Europe  Origins and Impact of the Plague-  Began in Asia and received its name the Black Death from the purplish black bumps on the skin  Took four years to cross Europe  ¾ of those who caught it died  25 million in all  Huge population losses THE BUBONIC PLAGUE STRIKES

9 1348 Spring

10 1348 Summer

11 1349

12 1350

13 1351-2



16 HOW WAS THE PLAGUE TRANSMITTED? We now know that the most common form of the Black Death was the BUBONIC PLAGUE! This disease was spread by fleas which lived on the black rat. The fleas sucked the rat’s blood which contained the plague germs. When the rat died the fleas jumped on to humans and passed on the deadly disease.

17 The Symptoms Bulbous Septicemic Form: almost 100% mortality rate.


19 Lancing a Buboe

20  Population declined  Trade declined  Serfs left to find a better living  Jews were blamed for the plague  Church lost prestige when their prayers failed to stop the plague EFFECTS OF THE PLAGUE-

21 Ring around the rosy, Pockets full of posy, Ashes, ashes We all fall down.


23 RING AROUND THE ROSIE  “Ring around the Rosie”  Refers to a red mark, supposedly the first sign of the plague  “A pocket full of posies”  Refers to sachets of herbs carried to ward off infection  “Ashes, ashes”  Either a reference to the cremation of plague victims or to the words said in the funeral Mass..."Ashes to ashes, dust to dust."  “We all fall down.”  Death: the plague was not selective in its victims; both rich and poor, young and old, succumbed.


25 The beak is a primitive gas mask, stuffed with substances thought to ward off the plague.























48  Edward III launched a war for the French throne that was fought off and on from 1337 to 1453  During this time the French pushed the English out of France  The Hundred Years’ War brought a change in the style of warfare in Europe  Longbow allowed for thousands of arrows to be rained down upon the French by archers THE HUNDREDS YEAR WAR

49 A STRUGGLE FOR NATIONAL IDENTITY  France was NOT a united country before the war began.  The French king only controlled about half of the country.

50  The use of the English defensive position was the use of the longbow.  Its arrows had more penetrating power than a bolt from a crossbow.  Could pierce an inch of wood or the armor of a knight at 200 yards!  A longbow could be fired more rapidly.  6 arrows per minute. The Longbow as a Weapon

51 JOAN OF ARC (1412 - 1432)  The daughter of prosperous peasants from an area of Burgundy that had suffered under the English.  Like many medieval mystics, she reported regular visions of divine revelation.  Her “voices” told her to go to the king and assist him in driving out the English.  She dressed like a man and was Charles’ most charismatic and feared military leader!

52  1429- Joan a young peasant girl felt a call from God to rescue France from English conquerors  She led them to victory in the battle near Orleans  Charles VII was crowned king  She was captured by the English and handed over to the church  Charles did nothing to help her and she was burned as a witch JOAN OF ARC

53  Feeling of nationalism emerges in England and France  Power of the French monarchy increases  War of the Roses in England where two families fought for the throne IMPACT OF THE HUNDREDS’ YEAR WAR-

54 THE IMPACT OF THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR  End of Hundred Years War=end of the “Middle Ages”  Religious devotion and chivalry crumble  Great schism  Display of wealth by the church  Discrediting church during plague

55 France Becomes Unified! France in 1337 France in 1453




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