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Seed: Ovule and its Contents Testa (Seed Coat) = Ovule Wall Embryo, Endosperm Fruit: Ovary and anything attached to it Pericarp = Ovary Wall with three.

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Presentation on theme: "Seed: Ovule and its Contents Testa (Seed Coat) = Ovule Wall Embryo, Endosperm Fruit: Ovary and anything attached to it Pericarp = Ovary Wall with three."— Presentation transcript:

1 Seed: Ovule and its Contents Testa (Seed Coat) = Ovule Wall Embryo, Endosperm Fruit: Ovary and anything attached to it Pericarp = Ovary Wall with three layers, Exocarp, Mesocarp, Endocarp Seed(s) Fruits

2 septate axial parietal marginal axial parietal free central apical marginal axial parietal free central basal Walters and Keil Ovaries from Fused Carpels nonseptate 3 Carpellate 3 Loculate 3 Septa 3 Carpellate 1 Loculate 0 Septa

3 A Taxonomy of Fruits 1a. From a Single Ovary 2a. Dry 3a. Indehiscent 4a. One Single-Ovuled Carpel 5a. Testa and Pericarp Not Fused Achene [Rosaceae]: Persistent Funiculus 4b. Two (Three) Single-Ovuled Fused Carpels, One Locule, One Seed 6a. Testa and Pericarp Not Fused 7a. Thin, Flexus Pericarp Cypsella [Asteraceae only]: Persistent Funiculus, Persistent Sepals. Often called an Achene. Sunflower Samara [Ulmaceae]: Winged Pericarp. Maple, Ash, Elm 7b. Thick, Hard Pericarp Nut [Fagaceae, Polygonacae]: Oak 6b. Testa and Pericarp Fused 8a. Thin, Flexus Pericarp Caryopsis [Poaceae]: Often called a Grain. Corn, Wheat 8b. Thick, Hard Pericarp Nutlet (First Sense) [Cyperaceae]

4 2a. Dry (Continued) 3b. Dehiscent 9a. Single Carpel, One-Many Seeded 10a. One Line of Dehiscence (One Valve) Follicle [Asclepiaceae]: Milkweed 10b. Two Lines of Dehiscence (Two Valves) Legume [Fabaceae only]: Peanut, Pea 9b. Several Fused Carpels, Many Seed Capsule: Okra, Poppy 9c. Two Fused, Many Seeded, Carpels with Modification Silique/Silicle [Brassicaceae only]: 2b. Fleshy 11a. Flesh from Pericarp 12a. Entire Pericarp Fleshy Berry: Tomato 12b. Thick Exocarp, Fleshy Mesocarp and Endocarp Pepo [Cucurbitaceae]: Cucumber, Pumpkin Hesperidium [Rutaceae]: Orange 12c. Hard or Leathery Endocarp Drupe: Cherry, Avocodo, Coconut

5 2b. Fleshy (Continued) 11b. Accessory Fruits 12a. Flesh from Hypanthium Pome [Rosaceae]: Apple, Pear 12b. Flesh from Receptacle (in Aggregate Fruits) Expansion of the Axis: Strawberry Envelopment by the Axis, Pseudocarp: Sweetshrub, Papaw 12d. Flesh from Sepals Mullberry (a Multiple Fruit) 11c. Flesh from Inflorescence Axis (in Multiple Fruits) Expansion of the Axis: Pineapple Envelopment by the Axis, Synconium: Fig 1b. Several Transiently Fused Carpels Schizocarp: Single-Ovuled Carpels, Splitting apart at Maturity Nutlet (Second Sense): Two-Ovules per Carpel, Two Carpels, Each Ovule in its own compartment. [Lamiaceae, Verbenaceae] 1c. From Several Unfused Carpels (Aggregate Fruits) Magnolia, Strawberry 1d. From Several Flowers (Multiple Fruits) Pineapple, Ear of Corn

6 Single-Ovuled, Single Carpellate Ovary Achene: Testa attached to Pericarp only via Persistent Funiculus Utricle: An Achene with the Pericarp inflated away from the Testa Sometimes used to describe an inflated fruit of other types Single-Seeded, Dry Fruits: Achene

7 Cypasella: Achene-like with Adnate Calyx (Pappus) [Asteraceae Only: Sunflower] Single Ovule per Carpel, Two Carpellate Ovary, One Ovule Develops Single-Seeded, Dry Fruits: Achene-like Samara: Achene-like with Winged Pericarp [Ulmaceae: Elm, Maple, Ash]

8 Nut: Hard Pericarp [Fagaceae: Oak] Involucre (bracts) Single Ovule per Carpel, Two-Carpellate Ovary, One Ovule Develops Single-Seeded, Dry Fruits: Achene-like

9 Pericarp Testa Endosperm Embryo Caryopsis or Grain, Testa completely Fused to Pericarp, both Thin [Poaceae Only: Corn, Wheat] Single-Seeded, Dry Fruits: Caryopsis or Grain Single Ovule per Carpel, Two-Carpellate Ovary, One Ovule Develops Nutlet (First Sense), Testa completely Fused to the Pericarp; Pericarp Thick [Cyperaceae] Often used to describe small nut-like fruits

10 Dehiscent, Dry Fruits: Follicle Multi-Ovuled (usually), Single Carpellate Ovary; Dispersal Unit is a Seed Follicle: Single Carpellate, Dehiscing along One Suture [Asclepiaceae: Milkweed]

11 Dehiscent, Dry Fruits: Legume Legume: Single Carpellate, Dehiscing along Two Sutures [Fabaceae Only: Peanut, Pea] Loment Tardily Dehiscent Along One Suture Breaks into Single-Seeded Segments Multi-Ovuled (usually), Single Carpellate Ovary; Dispersal Unit is a Seed

12 Dehiscent, Dry Fruits: Capsule and Silicle/Silique Multi-Seeded, Syncarpellate Ovaries; Dispersal Unit is a Seed Capsules: Syncarpellate, dehiscing through, between, or above Carpels Septicidal Loculicidal Poricidal Denticidal Circumscissile Schizocarpic Silicle Silique Along both sides of Partition (Replum) [Brassicaceae Only]

13 Hesperidium Mesocarp and Endocarp Exocarp Oily and a Rind [Rutaceae Only: Orange] Fleshy Fruits Flesh from Various Tissues Entire Pericarp Hypanthium Mesocarp and Endocarp Exocarp a Rind [Cucurbitaceae: Cucumber] Mesocarp Endocarp attached to Seed = Pyrene, Pit

14 Single Flower with Aggregate of Unfused Carpels on its Receptacle, or Multiple Flowers on a Spath-or Head-like Receptacle Aggregate Fruits Multiple Fruits Follicles Magnolia Drupelets Raspberry Achenes Strawberry Achenes Rose Achenes surrounded by Sepals Mulberry Syconium Fig

15 Schizocarp: Single Ovule per Carpel, Fused Carpels that break apart at Maturity Carpels usually called Mericarps; can be Achenes, Drupes, etc. Samaroid Schizocarp (tardily separating) Single Ovule per Carpel, Transiently Fused Carpels: Schizocarps

16 Nutlet: ‘Mericarp’ from a Two Ovule per Carpel, Two-Carpellate, Ovary Develops as 4 Transiently Fused Compartments Not a true Schizocarp producing true Mericarps [Lamiaceae, Verbenaceae] Nutlets often used to describe any small Nut-like Fruits Sepals Single Seeded Dry Fruits: Nutlet (Second Sense)

17 Rosales Rosaceae Rose Family Malus pumilla, Domesticated Apple Fused Hypanthium; Fruit a Fleshy Pome

18 Rosales Rosaceae Rose Family Malus pumilla, Domesticated Apple 5-Carpellate, 5 Loculate Ovary Fleshy Hypanthium Longitudinal Section Transverse Section Persistent Sepals Most Cultivars are Genetic Mosaics: Seed is wild-type and Flesh is Mutant. Propagated by grafting shoots onto wild-type rootstock.

19 Rosales Rosaceae Rose Family Malus pumilla, Domesticated Apple Three tissue layers in plants: L-I epidermis; L-II subepidermal; L-III middle, central These rarely mix except in thin structures such as leaf blades Both Hypanthium and Ovary each have their own L-I, L-II, and L-III Ovary: L-II Gametophytes and thus Seed in the Apple Fruit (wildtype) Hypanthium:L-I Color of Apple Fruit (mutant) L-IIInsignificant L-III Flesh of Apple Fruit (mutant)

20 Rosales Rosaceae Rose Family Malus pumilla, Domesticated Apple John Chapman (Johnny Appleseed): 1774 - 1845 Missionary for his own religion; Sold seed and seedlings of cider apples throughout the Northwest Territory. Northwest Ordinance required a land-grantee to plant at least 50 apple or pear trees.These were not eating apples, but “sour enough to set a squirrel's teeth on edge and make a jay scream” (Thoreau), used only for hard cider. Before refrigeration, store carbohydrate as alchohol. Carry Nation’s axe was for apple trees as well as bar-rooms. Cider also declined because of Beer Industry by German immigrants. Read Michael Pollan, The Botany of Desire: A Plant’s-eye View of the World Apples, Tulips, Marijuana and Potatos


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