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Fruits Seed: Ovule and its Contents Testa (Seed Coat) = Ovule Wall

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Presentation on theme: "Fruits Seed: Ovule and its Contents Testa (Seed Coat) = Ovule Wall"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fruits Seed: Ovule and its Contents Testa (Seed Coat) = Ovule Wall
Embryo, Endosperm Fruit: Ovary and anything attached to it Pericarp = Ovary Wall with three layers, Exocarp, Mesocarp, Endocarp Seed(s)

2 Ovaries from Fused Carpels
septate nonseptate axial parietal 3 Carpellate 3 Loculate 3 Septa 3 Carpellate 1 Loculate 0 Septa basal marginal axial parietal free central Walters and Keil marginal axial parietal free central apical

3 A Taxonomy of Fruits 1a. From a Single Ovary 2a. Dry 3a. Indehiscent 4a. One Single-Ovuled Carpel 5a. Testa and Pericarp Not Fused Achene [Rosaceae]: Persistent Funiculus 4b. Two (Three) Single-Ovuled Fused Carpels, One Locule, One Seed 6a. Testa and Pericarp Not Fused 7a. Thin, Flexus Pericarp Cypsella [Asteraceae only]: Persistent Funiculus, Persistent Sepals. Often called an Achene. Sunflower Samara [Ulmaceae]: Winged Pericarp. Maple, Ash, Elm 7b. Thick, Hard Pericarp Nut [Fagaceae, Polygonacae]: Oak 6b. Testa and Pericarp Fused 8a. Thin, Flexus Pericarp Caryopsis [Poaceae]: Often called a Grain. Corn, Wheat 8b. Thick, Hard Pericarp Nutlet (First Sense) [Cyperaceae]

4 2a. Dry (Continued) 3b. Dehiscent 9a. Single Carpel, One-Many Seeded 10a. One Line of Dehiscence (One Valve) Follicle [Asclepiaceae]: Milkweed 10b. Two Lines of Dehiscence (Two Valves) Legume [Fabaceae only]: Peanut, Pea 9b. Several Fused Carpels, Many Seed Capsule: Okra, Poppy 9c. Two Fused, Many Seeded, Carpels with Modification Silique/Silicle [Brassicaceae only]: 2b. Fleshy 11a. Flesh from Pericarp 12a. Entire Pericarp Fleshy Berry: Tomato 12b. Thick Exocarp, Fleshy Mesocarp and Endocarp Pepo [Cucurbitaceae]: Cucumber, Pumpkin Hesperidium [Rutaceae]: Orange 12c. Hard or Leathery Endocarp Drupe: Cherry, Avocodo, Coconut

5 2b. Fleshy (Continued) 11b. Accessory Fruits 12a. Flesh from Hypanthium Pome [Rosaceae]: Apple, Pear 12b. Flesh from Receptacle (in Aggregate Fruits) Expansion of the Axis: Strawberry Envelopment by the Axis, Pseudocarp: Sweetshrub, Papaw 12d. Flesh from Sepals Mullberry (a Multiple Fruit) 11c. Flesh from Inflorescence Axis (in Multiple Fruits) Expansion of the Axis: Pineapple Envelopment by the Axis, Synconium: Fig 1b. Several Transiently Fused Carpels Schizocarp: Single-Ovuled Carpels, Splitting apart at Maturity Nutlet (Second Sense): Two-Ovules per Carpel, Two Carpels, Each Ovule in its own compartment. [Lamiaceae, Verbenaceae] 1c. From Several Unfused Carpels (Aggregate Fruits) Magnolia, Strawberry 1d. From Several Flowers (Multiple Fruits) Pineapple, Ear of Corn

6 Single-Seeded, Dry Fruits: Achene
Single-Ovuled, Single Carpellate Ovary Achene: Testa attached to Pericarp only via Persistent Funiculus Utricle: An Achene with the Pericarp inflated away from the Testa Sometimes used to describe an inflated fruit of other types

7 Single-Seeded, Dry Fruits: Achene-like
Single Ovule per Carpel, Two Carpellate Ovary, One Ovule Develops Cypasella: Achene-like with Adnate Calyx (Pappus) [Asteraceae Only: Sunflower] Samara: Achene-like with Winged Pericarp [Ulmaceae: Elm, Maple, Ash]

8 Single-Seeded, Dry Fruits: Achene-like
Involucre (bracts) Single Ovule per Carpel, Two-Carpellate Ovary, One Ovule Develops Nut: Hard Pericarp [Fagaceae: Oak]

9 Single-Seeded, Dry Fruits: Caryopsis or Grain
Single Ovule per Carpel, Two-Carpellate Ovary, One Ovule Develops Pericarp Testa Endosperm Embryo Caryopsis or Grain, Testa completely Fused to Pericarp, both Thin [Poaceae Only: Corn, Wheat] Nutlet (First Sense), Testa completely Fused to the Pericarp; Pericarp Thick [Cyperaceae] Often used to describe small nut-like fruits

10 Dehiscent, Dry Fruits: Follicle
Multi-Ovuled (usually), Single Carpellate Ovary; Dispersal Unit is a Seed Follicle: Single Carpellate, Dehiscing along One Suture [Asclepiaceae: Milkweed]

11 Dehiscent, Dry Fruits: Legume
Breaks into Single-Seeded Segments Loment Tardily Dehiscent Along One Suture Multi-Ovuled (usually), Single Carpellate Ovary; Dispersal Unit is a Seed Legume: Single Carpellate, Dehiscing along Two Sutures [Fabaceae Only: Peanut, Pea]

12 Dehiscent, Dry Fruits: Capsule and Silicle/Silique
Multi-Seeded, Syncarpellate Ovaries; Dispersal Unit is a Seed Denticidal Schizocarpic Septicidal Loculicidal Poricidal Circumscissile Silicle Silique Along both sides of Partition (Replum) [Brassicaceae Only] Capsules: Syncarpellate, dehiscing through, between, or above Carpels

13 Flesh from Various Tissues
Fleshy Fruits Flesh from Various Tissues Hesperidium Mesocarp and Endocarp Exocarp Oily and a Rind [Rutaceae Only: Orange] Hypanthium Mesocarp Endocarp attached to Seed = Pyrene, Pit Mesocarp and Endocarp Exocarp a Rind [Cucurbitaceae: Cucumber] Entire Pericarp

14 Aggregate Fruits Multiple Fruits
Achenes surrounded by Sepals Mulberry Drupelets Raspberry Achenes Rose Follicles Magnolia Syconium Fig Achenes Strawberry Single Flower with Aggregate of Unfused Carpels on its Receptacle, or Multiple Flowers on a Spath-or Head-like Receptacle

15 Single Ovule per Carpel, Transiently Fused Carpels: Schizocarps
Samaroid Schizocarp (tardily separating) Schizocarp: Single Ovule per Carpel, Fused Carpels that break apart at Maturity Carpels usually called Mericarps; can be Achenes, Drupes, etc.

16 Single Seeded Dry Fruits: Nutlet (Second Sense)
Sepals Nutlet: ‘Mericarp’ from a Two Ovule per Carpel, Two-Carpellate, Ovary Develops as 4 Transiently Fused Compartments Not a true Schizocarp producing true Mericarps [Lamiaceae, Verbenaceae] Nutlets often used to describe any small Nut-like Fruits

17 Rosales Rosaceae Rose Family Malus pumilla, Domesticated Apple
Fused Hypanthium; Fruit a Fleshy Pome

18 Rosales Rosaceae Rose Family Malus pumilla, Domesticated Apple
Fleshy Hypanthium Persistent Sepals Longitudinal Section Transverse Section 5-Carpellate, 5 Loculate Ovary Most Cultivars are Genetic Mosaics: Seed is wild-type and Flesh is Mutant. Propagated by grafting shoots onto wild-type rootstock.

19 Rosales Rosaceae Rose Family Malus pumilla, Domesticated Apple
Three tissue layers in plants: L-I epidermis; L-II subepidermal; L-III middle, central These rarely mix except in thin structures such as leaf blades Both Hypanthium and Ovary each have their own L-I, L-II, and L-III Ovary: L-II Gametophytes and thus Seed in the Apple Fruit (wildtype) Hypanthium: L-I Color of Apple Fruit (mutant) L-II Insignificant L-III Flesh of Apple Fruit (mutant)

20 Rosales Rosaceae Rose Family Malus pumilla, Domesticated Apple
John Chapman (Johnny Appleseed): Missionary for his own religion; Sold seed and seedlings of cider apples throughout the Northwest Territory. Northwest Ordinance required a land-grantee to plant at least 50 apple or pear trees.These were not eating apples, but “sour enough to set a squirrel's teeth on edge and make a jay scream” (Thoreau), used only for hard cider. Before refrigeration, store carbohydrate as alchohol. Carry Nation’s axe was for apple trees as well as bar-rooms. Cider also declined because of Beer Industry by German immigrants. Read Michael Pollan, The Botany of Desire: A Plant’s-eye View of the World Apples, Tulips, Marijuana and Potatos

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