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Fruits, Seeds, and Embryos

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Presentation on theme: "Fruits, Seeds, and Embryos"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fruits, Seeds, and Embryos
Angiosperms II Fruits, Seeds, and Embryos

2 FRUITS A “fruit” is derived from the ripened ovary (ovaries) and sometimes other associated floral parts to end the debate then, a tomato is a fruit since it is derived from a flower The fruit (usually a ripened ovary) is surrounded by the fruit wall or pericarp This wall is composed of three layers (exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp) These layers may be distinct or fused

3 Fruit Structures (Pericarp)
Endocarp Mesocarp Exocarp

4 Fruit Types Multiple Fruits derived from MANY flowers
For an interactive key to FRUIT TYPES, go to Multiple Fruits derived from MANY flowers pineapple, mulberry

5 Fruit Types (cont.) Aggregate Fruits
derived from SEVERAL separate carpels (pistils) of ONE flower strawberry, raspberry, blackberry

6 Fruit Types (cont.) Simple Fruits
derived from ONE carpel or pistil of ONE flower are either fleshy or dry at maturity

7 Simple Fruits Fleshy Fruits (a few types)
with a fleshy hypanthium and/or receptacle = pome (apple) a single seed with stony endocarp = drupe (plum, peach) many seeded, endocarp fleshy = berry (grape, tomato) or pepo (pumpkin, watermelon) Outer layer with a separable rind = hesperidium (orange, lemon, grapefruit)

8 Fleshy Simple Fruits BERRY DRUPE

9 Fleshy Simple Fruits (cont.)

10 Simple Fruits (cont.) DRY FRUITS Dehiscent Types Indehiscent Types
seeds released through one seam = FOLLICLE seeds released through 2 seams = LEGUME seeds released though pores or multiple seams = CAPSULE Indehiscent Types pericarp hard and thick with a basal cup = NUT Pericarp soft and thin, no cup = ACHENE, CARYOPSIS etc...


12 Indehiscent Dry Fruits

13 Why the variation in fruit types?
Fruits are units of dispersal for the seeds Certain fruits are adapted for dispersal by wind (small, light, winged)

14 Fruit Dispersal (cont.)
Others are dispersed by animals (fleshy, colored, sweet, or high in energy like nuts; or with spines, hooks) Bidens – tickseed fuits

15 Fruit Dispersal (cont.)
Some for water dispersal (coconut)

16 Seeds A seed is surrounded by the seed coat derived from the integuments The embryo may have large cotyledons (as in lima beans) and little endosperm Some seeds have lots of endosperm and thin cotyledons (castor beans)

17 Pinto Bean vs. Castor Bean

18 The Grass Seed (Fruit) Outer pericarp is fused to the seed coat
Single massive cotyledon is called the scutellum Protective sheaths cover the early shoot (coleoptile) and the root (coleorhiza) Endosperm is surrounded by a special layer of cells called the aleurone layer

19 CORN GRAIN coleoptile endosperm coleorhiza scutellum embryonic leaves

20 Seed Germination Normal germination requires proper temperature, water, oxygen and sometimes light If, given proper conditions, a seed does not germinate, we say it is DORMANT Dormancy is annoying to us, but it is evolutionarily adaptive for the plant

21 Reasons for Seed Dormancy
Seed coat impervious to water and/or oxygen (imbibition of water is often the first step in germination) scarification required (physical or chemical) to allow entry of water and/or oxygen many commercial applications for seed production

22 Seed Scarification

23 Seed Dormancy Seed has an immature embryo
Seed has chemical inhibitors in the seed coat that must be leached out

24 Desert in Bloom

25 Seed Longevity Seeds may be dormant for only a few weeks to thousands of years record is over 10,000 years for Arctic lupine seeds from lemming burrows

26 Seed Longevity (cont.) Lotus seeds have been germinated after storage for more than 2,000 years

27 Seed Banks Seed Banks help protect angiosperm genetic diversity around the world Kew Gardens, England. Home of the Millennium Seed Bank Project

28 Embryology Early embryo development in plants progresses through specific stages: much of the work done on Capsella bursa-pastoris (“shepherd’s purse”)

29 Capsella Embryology “ball” stage with basal cell, suspensor and the embryo proper

30 Capsella Embryology (cont.)
“heart-shaped” stage where the embryo’s two cotyledons become obvious and the differentiation of tissues become evident

31 Capsella Embryology (cont.)
“bending cotyledons” stage where the embryo moves toward its final form

32 Capsella Embryology (cont.)
“Mature embryo” stage

33 Embryonic Tissue Layers
Thee distinct tissue layers differentiate early in embryo development: PROTODERM which will give rise to the plant’s epidermis and all associate structures (guard cells, trichomes, epidermal cells) PROCAMBIUM which will become the primary xylem and phloem tissues (vascular tissues)

34 Embryonic Tissue Layers (cont.)
GROUND MERISTEM from which will be derived the pith, cortex, and associated structures in the stem and root These tissue layers correspond in a way to early tissues in animal embryos, namely, the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm Development of most plant embryos has not been investigated

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