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Lecture 14: Seeds and Fruit

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1 Lecture 14: Seeds and Fruit
Fruits Fruit types Seed dispersal Video: seed dispersal Real fruit samples

2 What is a seed? A matured ovule, containing: 1. a plant __________
2. a food supply 3. covered by a _____________

3 Embryo The seed contains a well-formed multicellular young plant embryo (germ) Embryo is _________ (2n) It will become a whole plant

4 Nutritive tissue Seed contains a food supply
Stored food contains enough energy for the embryo to grow through the soil, when seedling is unable to photosynthesize. Food source can be the _________, which is ______ (_n) – as a result of double fertilization

5 Seed coat A thick protective coat – outer layer of the seed
Formed from the _______________ Seed coat

6 Gymnosperm seed Single fertilization produces the diploid embryo (2n)
Food source is the haploid megagametophyte

7 Flowering plant seed In angiosperms (flowering plants) there is
DOUBLE _______________ Which produces a diploid ________(2n) and, A triploid (3n) __________ Endosperm is the food source

8 Dicot vs. monocot seed Dicot has two cotyledons (like bean)
Endosperm (food) is kept in the _________ Monocot has one __________ which absorbs the endosperm tissue during germination (corn)

9 Fruit In flowering plants – Fruit is a mature, ripened o_____ that contains the seeds Pericarp – the ovary wall ovary Fruit types A. Simple B. Aggregate C. Multiple

10 A. Simple fruit A. Simple fruit – develops from a ______ ovary of a single flower. Simple fruits can be either fleshy or dry when mature Simple fleshy fruit 1. __________ 2. Hesperidium 3. __________ 4. Pepo 5. _________

11 Simple fleshy fruit 1. Berry – entire fruit wall is soft and fleshy at maturity. Inside is slimy. For example, grapes, tomato, etc. 2. _______________ is a berry with tough, leathery rind (peel) Examples: oranges, lemons, other citrus.

12 Simple fleshy fruit: drupe
3. _______ type – outer part of fruit wall is soft and fleshy, inner part is hard and stony For example: ______________________

13 Simple fleshy fruit: pepo
4. ________ – also a fleshy fruit with a tougher outer rind All member of the squash family: pumpkin, melons, cucumbers

14 Simple fleshy fruit: pome
5. Pomes: most of the fleshy part of pomes develops from the enlarged base of the perianth (corolla and calyx) that has fused with the ovary wall Pomes include ___________________

15 Simple dry fruit: capsule
Simple dry fruits are dry (not fleshy) at maturity. Simple dry fruits that open at maturity include: capsules and legumes Capsule – fruit is dry at maturity and splits open along several seams Example: Cotton

16 Simple dry fruit: Legumes
Legumes are dry at maturity and split open along _______ seams Examples: pea pods, bean pods, peanut

17 Simple dry fruits Simple dry fruits that do NOT open at maturity include Caryopsis: seed coat is fused to the ovary wall (cereal grains like ____________________) Nuts: single-ovary wall and seed coat remain separate, ovary wall is very hard (acorns)

18 B. _____________ __________ fruit develops from one flower with many separate pistils/carpels, all ripening simultaneously Examples: strawberry, raspberries, blackberries

19 C. Multiple fruit Multiple fruit develops from ovaries of several flowers borne/fused together on the same stalk For example: ____________

20 What is the purpose of the fruit?
The main function of the fruit is to disperse the seeds Dispersal is important because 1. It spreads the progeny in order to colonize new environments 2. Reduces ______________ for resources with parents 3. Reduces the chances of predators destroying all of the plant’s yearly seed production Four types of seed dispersal: A. Self dispersal B. ______ dispersal C. Water dispersal D. _______ dispersal

21 A. Self dispersal Plants disperse their seeds by forceful ejection – explosive fruits! Witch hazel, squirting cucumber (jet propulsion)

22 Self dispersal The peanut plant sows (buries) its own seeds!
Geocarpic: carpel grows inside the earth (soil)

23 B. Wind dispersal Fruit and seeds may have special devices for wind dispersal Plumes catch wind currents: Dandelion Trees take advantage of their great heights for wind dispersal. Fruits with wings are used to slow the descent to land: maple, ash fruit

24 C. ___________ Dispersal
Fruits and/or seeds use flotation devices to travel by water (in rivers, oceans, etc.) Fruit may have air spaces and corky floats: for example ________________

25 D. Animal dispersal Plants have _____________ with animals to accomplish seed dispersal Many plants depend on animals for seed dispersal; they may offer a nutritional reward Animals learn to recognize ripened fruit colors Fleshy fruits eaten and dispersed with feces

26 Animal dispersal Some dry fruit attach and cling to animals (they hitchhike on the animals) Some have Velcro-like hooks that cling to animal fur (burdock, cockleburs) Others have sticky substances that stick to host (mistletoe)

27 Video on seed dispersal
Watch the video, take notes, answer these questions: What carries the dandelion seeds for miles? What feature of trees gives them a particular advantage when dispersing seeds by air? How does the squirting cucumber disperse its seeds? Although plants use wind and water, what do most plants use as carriers for their seeds? Blackberries on a tree do not ripen simultaneously, why? What plant do elephants help to disperse? How do they do it? What percentage of these seeds germinate in elephant dung? Why?

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