Presentation on theme: "Evolution of Angiosperms"— Presentation transcript:
1Evolution of Angiosperms Chapter 20Archaefructus sinensis
2Rafflesia arnoldii True or False Flowers are the reproductive structures of angiosperms.Flowers are determinate shoots that bears sporophylls.
3Evolutionary Trends Among Flowers Flowers have gone from many indefinite parts to having fewer parts that are definite in number.Floral whorls have reduced over time.Floral parts have become fused.Floral axes have become shortened.Carpels have gone from leaflike and incompletely closed to pistil-shaped and sealed.Ovaries have gone from superior to inferior.Perianths have gone from having indistinct sepals and petals to having a distinct calyx and corolla.Flowers have gone from radial (actinomorphic) to bilateral (zygomorphic) symmetry.
4Which of the following is not involved in flower pollination? A) beesB) batsC) beetlesD) toads named MelE) land mammals, i.e. miceF) birdsTrue or FalseFloral evolution was and still is driven by animals.
5Floral Evolution Flowers and insects have coevolved. Coevolution- the simultaneous evolution of adaptations in 2 or more interacting populations.Insect pollination is more efficient than passive pollination.Beetles, flies, bees.Bees are the most important group of visiting insects.
6Bird and bat-pollinated flowers Produce copious nectar.Usually bright red and yellow in color.Birds have a good sense of color.Flowers usually have very little odor.Smell not developed in birds.
7FlavonoidsWater soluble phenolic compounds with two six-carbon rings linked by a three-carbon unit.Occur in the vacuole of plant cells.The most important pigments in floral coloration are the anthocyanins (red, violet, and blue) and the flavonols.
10Asteraceae and Orchidaceae Composites have flowers closely bunched together in a head.22,000 species.Ovary with 1 ovuleDisk and ray flowers.OrchidaceaeOrchid flowers are showy and zygomorphic.24,000 species.Ovary with 1,000s of ovules.Cuplike lower petal.
11Fruit Related Terminology Fruit- a mature ovary.Ovary- the enlarged basal portion of a carpel.Carpel- the vessel that encloses the ovule/s; forms the gynoecium.Ovule- the structure that contains the female gametophyte with egg cell, including the nucellus and integuments.Seed- a mature ovule.Locules- chambers in the ovary that contain the ovules.
13Fruit Classification Fruit derived from more than 1 pistil Multiple fruit- develop from a cluster of mature ovaries produced by a cluster of mature flowers.Pineapple.Aggregate fruit- develop from several separate carpels of a single flower.Raspberry, strawberry, blackberry.
14Simple Fruit Types- fruit derived from 1 pistil Fleshy Simple FruitsBerries- fleshy inner layer. Tomatoes, bananas, grapes.Pepo- a berry with a thick, leathery, inseparable rind. Cucurbitaceae.Hesperidium- a berry with a thick, leathery, separable rind. Citrus.Pome- fleshy hypanthium. Pear, apple.Drupes- stony endocarp. Peach, cherry, olive.Dry Simple FruitsDehiscent- tissue of the mature ovary wall splits open, freeing the seeds.Legume- dehisces along 2 sutures. Bean.Indehiscent- tissue of the mature ovary wall remains sealed with seeds remaining in the fruit.Nut- hard pericarp, usually one-seeded.Achene- small. Dandelion.
15Fruits and seeds have evolved in relation to their dispersal agents Wind-borne fruits & seeds.Floating.Fleshy for animal dispersal.Attachment to animals.