Presentation on theme: "Evolution of Angiosperms Chapter 20 Archaefructus sinensis."— Presentation transcript:
Evolution of Angiosperms Chapter 20 Archaefructus sinensis
Rafflesia arnoldii True or False 1)Flowers are the reproductive structures of angiosperms. 2)Flowers are determinate shoots that bears sporophylls.
Evolutionary Trends Among Flowers 1)Flowers have gone from many indefinite parts to having fewer parts that are definite in number. 2)Floral whorls have reduced over time. 3)Floral parts have become fused. 4)Floral axes have become shortened. 5)Carpels have gone from leaflike and incompletely closed to pistil-shaped and sealed. 6)Ovaries have gone from superior to inferior. 7)Perianths have gone from having indistinct sepals and petals to having a distinct calyx and corolla. 8)Flowers have gone from radial (actinomorphic) to bilateral (zygomorphic) symmetry.
Which of the following is not involved in flower pollination? –A) bees –B) bats –C) beetles –D) toads named Mel –E) land mammals, i.e. mice –F) birds True or False Floral evolution was and still is driven by animals.
Floral Evolution Flowers and insects have coevolved. –Coevolution- the simultaneous evolution of adaptations in 2 or more interacting populations. Insect pollination is more efficient than passive pollination. Beetles, flies, bees. Bees are the most important group of visiting insects.
Bird and bat-pollinated flowers Produce copious nectar. Usually bright red and yellow in color. –Birds have a good sense of color. Flowers usually have very little odor. –Smell not developed in birds.
Flavonoids Water soluble phenolic compounds with two six- carbon rings linked by a three-carbon unit. Occur in the vacuole of plant cells. The most important pigments in floral coloration are the anthocyanins (red, violet, and blue) and the flavonols.
Wind pollinated flowers do not produce nectar.
Asteraceae and Orchidaceae Asteraceae –Composites have flowers closely bunched together in a head. 22,000 species. Ovary with 1 ovule Disk and ray flowers. Orchidaceae –Orchid flowers are showy and zygomorphic. 24,000 species. Ovary with 1,000s of ovules. Cuplike lower petal.
Fruit Related Terminology Fruit- a mature ovary. Ovary- the enlarged basal portion of a carpel. Carpel- the vessel that encloses the ovule/s; forms the gynoecium. Ovule- the structure that contains the female gametophyte with egg cell, including the nucellus and integuments. Seed- a mature ovule. Locules- chambers in the ovary that contain the ovules.
Parietal Free central Axile
Fruit Classification Fruit derived from more than 1 pistil –Multiple fruit- develop from a cluster of mature ovaries produced by a cluster of mature flowers. Pineapple. –Aggregate fruit- develop from several separate carpels of a single flower. Raspberry, strawberry, blackberry.
Simple Fruit Types- fruit derived from 1 pistil Fleshy Simple Fruits –Berries- fleshy inner layer. Tomatoes, bananas, grapes. Pepo- a berry with a thick, leathery, inseparable rind. Cucurbitaceae. Hesperidium- a berry with a thick, leathery, separable rind. Citrus. –Pome- fleshy hypanthium. Pear, apple. –Drupes- stony endocarp. Peach, cherry, olive. Dry Simple Fruits –Dehiscent- tissue of the mature ovary wall splits open, freeing the seeds. Legume- dehisces along 2 sutures. Bean. –Indehiscent- tissue of the mature ovary wall remains sealed with seeds remaining in the fruit. Nut- hard pericarp, usually one-seeded. Achene- small. Dandelion.
Fruits and seeds have evolved in relation to their dispersal agents Wind-borne fruits & seeds. Floating. Fleshy for animal dispersal. Attachment to animals.