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The Fruits The frut is the devoloped, fertilized, mature ovary or ovaries of a single flower. Function: to protect and nourish the seed during development.

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Presentation on theme: "The Fruits The frut is the devoloped, fertilized, mature ovary or ovaries of a single flower. Function: to protect and nourish the seed during development."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Fruits The frut is the devoloped, fertilized, mature ovary or ovaries of a single flower. Function: to protect and nourish the seed during development.

2 A-Superior Fruits: e.g Linseed, Solanaceae, Mustard. B-Inferior fruits: Cardamom, Umbelliferae

3 Inferior fruits Superior fruits

4 The Fruit is Classified into True False The Gynoecium only The Gynoecium + other floral parts

5 True Fruits Derived from single ovary of one or more united carpels e.g Fennel Derived from apocarpo us ovary (separate carpels) e.g Star anise Simple Aggregate Composite (compound) Formed from the whole inflorescence e.g Mullberry شجرة التوت

6 The Fruits

7 True False Succulent Aggregate Composite Simple Dry AchenesFollicles The Fruits True False Succulent Aggregate Composite Simple Dry AchenesFollicles The Fruits

8 Succulent (fleshy pericarp) Drupe, the endocarp is hard and woody Berry, the endocarp neither hard nor lignified

9 Teeth

10 Dry (with a dry or leathery pericarp) Dehiscent: split open when ripe to release the seeds Indehiscent: dont split open when ripe (one seeded) Schizocarpic: - bi- or multilocular fruit, - split up into one seed indehiscent parts (mericarps)

11 Dehiscent Fruits 1-Follicle: the splitting along one side only e.g. star anise, strophanthus 2- Siliqua: the splitting by 2 valves to apex e.g mustard seed

12 3- Legume The splitting along the two sides

13 4- Capsule: dehisces by various ways.

14 Split along the middle septa Split along the middle line of each locule As 1/or 2 but seeds remain attached to central axis Capsule Split along middle septa Split open into locules As 1 or 2 but seeds remain

15 Split by pores Partial longitudinal splitting forming teeth Capsule whose upper part falls off when the seeds are released-

16 dont split open when ripe (usually one-seeded) Monocarpillary derived from superior ovary, pericarp is memberaneous-not fused with the testa e.g strawberry (aggregates of achene) abc d

17 Caryopsis From inferior ovary

18 Cypsella

19 Sycamore شجرة الجميز البندق Indehiscent cont.))

20 3 rd type of dry fruit

21 On ripening, it splits into numerous one-seeded achene-like mericarps e.g Labiatae

22 e.g Castor الخروع Polycarpellary multilocular ovary Composed of 2 or more indehiscent winged parts split from each other سكر القيقب

23 2 nd type of true fruit

24 Aggregate Fruits Achenes: grouped on swollen or dry receptacle Follicles: A Follicle is a dry dehiscent fruit which splits on one side only. It may contain one or many seeds.

25 3-Composite fruit Strobile, derived from scaly inflorescence e,g Hops Syconus A collective fleshy fruit, in which the ovaries are hidden within a hollow receptacle, as in the fig. fleshyfruit ovaries hiddenwithin hollow receptaclefig

26 Fig

27 Long pepper Serosis (soross): derived from a spike (inflorescence) with a fleshy axis and perianthes of the single fruits fused together. e.g Mullberry long pepper 3-Composite fruit (cont.)

28 As the ovary matures, its wall develops to form the pericarp, which is divided into three layers. The outermost, the exocarp, is usually a single epidermal layer. The extent of the middle layer, the mesocarp, Histology of the fruit

29 The inner layer, the endocarp, varies widely, but in any single type of fruit one of the layers may be thick, the others thin. These layers are generally more conspicuous in fleshy fruits than in dry ones.

30 Terminology of the fruit Carpophore: Floral axis extension between adjacent carpels, as in the Apiacea. Epicarp or Exocar: Outermost layer of pericarp Mesocarp: Middle layer of pericarp.

31 Endocarp: Innermost differentiated layer of pericarp. Pericarp: Fruit wall. Placenta: Region of attachment of seeds on inner fruit wall.

32 Ex. Three-layer structure shared by all fruits. The fruit skin is the outermost layer, called the exocarp. It protects two inner layers: the mesocarp, and the pit, or endocarp. Together, these three layers comprise the pericarp, the thickened wall of fruit that encases and protects the seed.

33 (Innermost of mesocarp) Oil drops Caox

34 www.tantapharmacy.org http://www.tantapss.com/


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