Presentation on theme: "The Fruits The frut is the devoloped, fertilized, mature ovary or ovaries of a single flower. Function: to protect and nourish the seed during development."— Presentation transcript:
The Fruits The frut is the devoloped, fertilized, mature ovary or ovaries of a single flower. Function: to protect and nourish the seed during development.
The Fruit is Classified into True False The Gynoecium only The Gynoecium + other floral parts
True Fruits Derived from single ovary of one or more united carpels e.g Fennel Derived from apocarpo us ovary (separate carpels) e.g Star anise Simple Aggregate Composite (compound) Formed from the whole inflorescence e.g Mullberry شجرة التوت
Succulent (fleshy pericarp) Drupe, the endocarp is hard and woody Berry, the endocarp neither hard nor lignified
Dry (with a dry or leathery pericarp) Dehiscent: split open when ripe to release the seeds Indehiscent: dont split open when ripe (one seeded) Schizocarpic: - bi- or multilocular fruit, - split up into one seed indehiscent parts (mericarps)
Dehiscent Fruits 1-Follicle: the splitting along one side only e.g. star anise, strophanthus 2- Siliqua: the splitting by 2 valves to apex e.g mustard seed
3- Legume The splitting along the two sides
4- Capsule: dehisces by various ways.
Split along the middle septa Split along the middle line of each locule As 1/or 2 but seeds remain attached to central axis Capsule Split along middle septa Split open into locules As 1 or 2 but seeds remain
Split by pores Partial longitudinal splitting forming teeth Capsule whose upper part falls off when the seeds are released-
dont split open when ripe (usually one-seeded) Monocarpillary derived from superior ovary, pericarp is memberaneous-not fused with the testa e.g strawberry (aggregates of achene) abc d
Caryopsis From inferior ovary
Sycamore شجرة الجميز البندق Indehiscent cont.))
3 rd type of dry fruit
On ripening, it splits into numerous one-seeded achene-like mericarps e.g Labiatae
e.g Castor الخروع Polycarpellary multilocular ovary Composed of 2 or more indehiscent winged parts split from each other سكر القيقب
2 nd type of true fruit
Aggregate Fruits Achenes: grouped on swollen or dry receptacle Follicles: A Follicle is a dry dehiscent fruit which splits on one side only. It may contain one or many seeds.
3-Composite fruit Strobile, derived from scaly inflorescence e,g Hops Syconus A collective fleshy fruit, in which the ovaries are hidden within a hollow receptacle, as in the fig. fleshyfruit ovaries hiddenwithin hollow receptaclefig
Long pepper Serosis (soross): derived from a spike (inflorescence) with a fleshy axis and perianthes of the single fruits fused together. e.g Mullberry long pepper 3-Composite fruit (cont.)
As the ovary matures, its wall develops to form the pericarp, which is divided into three layers. The outermost, the exocarp, is usually a single epidermal layer. The extent of the middle layer, the mesocarp, Histology of the fruit
The inner layer, the endocarp, varies widely, but in any single type of fruit one of the layers may be thick, the others thin. These layers are generally more conspicuous in fleshy fruits than in dry ones.
Terminology of the fruit Carpophore: Floral axis extension between adjacent carpels, as in the Apiacea. Epicarp or Exocar: Outermost layer of pericarp Mesocarp: Middle layer of pericarp.
Endocarp: Innermost differentiated layer of pericarp. Pericarp: Fruit wall. Placenta: Region of attachment of seeds on inner fruit wall.
Ex. Three-layer structure shared by all fruits. The fruit skin is the outermost layer, called the exocarp. It protects two inner layers: the mesocarp, and the pit, or endocarp. Together, these three layers comprise the pericarp, the thickened wall of fruit that encases and protects the seed.