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Tuesday Lecture – Fruits and Nuts of Temperate Regions Reading: Textbook, Chapter 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Tuesday Lecture – Fruits and Nuts of Temperate Regions Reading: Textbook, Chapter 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tuesday Lecture – Fruits and Nuts of Temperate Regions Reading: Textbook, Chapter 3

2 Collect assignment – Origin of Foods

3 Quiz 1.What is a fruit? Give an example. Also give an example of a plant food that we eat that is not a fruit. 2.In what century, and in what part of our country did Johny Appleseed live?

4 Vegetable Fruits and Meaty Nuts

5 What is a Fruit? Fruit = mature ovary (for a botanist)

6 Flowers to Fruits Ovary (in flower) With ovules Fruit (with 1+ seeds)

7 Fruit Types Major Distinctions: - dry vs. fleshy See Table 3.1, p. 54 Also Fig. 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 pages 56-57

8 Fruit Types Major Distinctions: - dry vs. fleshy - dehiscent vs. indehiscent See Table 3.1, p. 54 Also Fig. 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 pages 56-57

9 Fruit Types Major Distinctions: - dry vs. fleshy - dehiscent vs. indehiscent - product of 1 ovary vs. 2+ ovaries See Table 3.1, p. 54 Also Fig. 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 pages 56-57

10 Fruit Types Major Distinctions: - dry vs. fleshy - dehiscent vs. indehiscent - product of 1 ovary vs. 2+ ovaries - product of 1 flower vs. multiple flowers See Table 3.1, p. 54 Also Fig. 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 pages 56-57

11 Fruit Types Major Distinctions: - dry vs. fleshy - dehiscent vs. indehiscent - product of 1 ovary vs. 2+ ovaries - product of 1 flower vs. multiple flowers See Table 3.1, p. 54 Also Fig. 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 pages Pericarp – fruit wall - endocarp (inside) - mesocarp (middle) - exocarp (outside)

12 Dry, Indehiscent Fruits – Achene, Grain Achene – 1-seeded, fruit and seed wall separate

13 Dry, Indehiscent Fruits – Achene, Grain Achene – 1-seeded, fruit and seed wall separate Grain – 1-seeded, fruit and seed wall fused Chapter 5

14 Dry Indehiscent Fruits - Nut Nut – 1 seeded, enclosed by hard pericarp, surrounded by “husk” See Figs. 3.15, 3.16, pages 70-71

15 Dry, Dehiscent Fruits – Follicle Follicle – from simple ovary, splits along 1 seam only Spiraea Fruits milkweed See Figs. 3.4, p. 58

16 Dry, Dehiscent Fruits - Legume Legume – from simple ovary, splits along 2 seams Fruit of Fabaceae, only: beans, peas, lentils etc. Chapter 6

17 Dry, Dehiscent Fruits – Capsule Capsule = from compound ovary, splits along >2 seams or pores

18 Dry, Dehiscent Fruits - Schizocarp Schizocarp = from compound ovary, splits into 1-seeded units Maple Schizocarp Carrot

19 Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Berry Berry – multiple seeds, embedded in fleshy pulp

20 Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Berry Berry – multiple seeds, embedded in fleshy pulp Seedless fruits – sterile, so no seeds develop, but still considered to be berries

21 Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Berry Berry – multiple seeds, embedded in fleshy pulp Special types of Berries Pepo – hard rind

22 Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Berry Berry – multiple seeds, embedded in fleshy pulp Special types of Berries Pepo – hard rind Hesperidium – flesh = juice- filled hairs

23 Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Berry Berry – multiple seeds, embedded in fleshy pulp Special types of Berries Pepo – hard rind Hesperidium – flesh = juice- filled hairs Pome – most of flesh = hypanthium

24 Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Drupe See Fig. 3.4, page 59; also Fig. 3.12, page 68

25 Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Drupe See Fig. 3.4, page 59; also Fig. 3.12, page 68

26 Fleshy Fruits from 1 Ovary - Drupe See Fig. 3.4, page 59; also Fig. 3.12, page 68

27 Fleshy Fruits from > 1 Ovary See Fig. 3.8, p. 66

28 Fleshy Fruits - Comparison

29 Fleshy Fruits from > 1 Flower

30 Temperate Fruit & Nut Crops Rosaceae – Rose Family - Apples, Pears, and Quinces - Plums, Cherries, Peaches, Apricots, Almonds - Strawberries, Raspberries, Blackberries Blueberries & Cranberries Grapes Olives Kiwi Fruit Walnuts & Pecans Pistachios See Tables 3.2, p. 55; Table 3.5, p

31 Apples, Pears, and Quinces See Fig. 3.6, p. 64

32 Apple Production Native to: Caucasus Mountains, Kazakhstan

33 Apple Production Native to: Caucasus Mountains, Kazakhstan

34 Apple Production Native to: Caucasus Mountains, Kazakhstan “Seed” apples (Johnny Appleseed) – diverse

35 Apple Production Native to: Caucasus Mountains, Kazakhstan “Seed” apples (Johnny Appleseed) – diverse Cultivars – grafted onto rootstocks

36 Apple Production Native to: Caucasus Mountains, Kazakhstan “Seed” apples (Johnny Appleseed) – diverse Cultivars – grafted onto rootstocks Modern Favorites: Washington State, Oregon – Red Delicious Being Superseded By: Granny Smith, Gala, Fuji, Braeburn Economics: production cost = $12/box; wholesale $8-12/box

37 Stone Fruits – Plums, Cherries, Peaches, Apricots

38 Stone Fruits – Plums and Peaches Plum Peach

39 Stone Fruits – Cherries

40 Berries that are not really berries Strawberry - Fragaria See Fig. 3.8, p. 66

41 Berries that are not really berries Brambles – raspberries and blackberries Fruit = aggregate of small drupes (drupelets)

42 Berries that are not really berries Raspberry – receptacle stays behind when fruit detached Blackberry – receptacle detaches with fruit BoysenberryLoganberry Black raspberry Blackberry

43 Berries that are really Berries Blueberry Cranberry See Fig. 3.9, p. 67

44 Another Popular Berry Grapes - Vitis Vineyard grapes Muscadine grapes Table grapes Flowers See Fig. 3.11, p. 68

45 A Berry with an Accent See Fig. 3.14, p. 70 Note: some individuals can be allergic to kiwi Kiwi Fruit – Actinidia deliciosa (original common name = Chinese gooseberry)

46 Drupes Again Olive – Olea europea See Fig. 3.12, p. 68

47 Nuts to You Pecans Walnuts See Fig. 3.15, 3.16, p

48 More Nuts Hazelnut See Figs. 3.17, 3.18, p. 72 Chestnut - Castanea

49 Nuts that are not nuts Pistachio – Pistacia vera Almond - Prunus Fig. 3.19, p. 73; Figs. 3.20, 3.21, p. 74

50 Thursday Lecture – Fruits and Nuts of Warm Regions Reading: Textbook, Chapter 4


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