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Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds. Most herbs: Dicotyledons! Dicotyledons!

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Presentation on theme: "Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds. Most herbs: Dicotyledons! Dicotyledons!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds

2 Most herbs: Dicotyledons! Dicotyledons!

3 Monocotyledons vs Dicotyledons Monocots Monocots More advanced plants More advanced plants One primary leaf One primary leaf Adventitious root system Adventitious root system Flower parts arranged in 3s Flower parts arranged in 3s Leaf veins: parallel. Leaf veins: parallel. Vascular cambium absent Vascular cambium absent Vascular bundles scattered throughout tissue Vascular bundles scattered throughout tissue Dicots More primitive Two primary leaves Tap root system Flower parts arranged in 4s or 5s. Leave veins: network system Vascular cambium present Vascular bundles in a ring (vein)

4 Flower Structure Each flower grows from an embryonic primordium forms the bud. Each flower grows from an embryonic primordium forms the bud. Inflorescences - Group of several to hundreds of flowers. Inflorescences - Group of several to hundreds of flowers. E.g. Maize E.g. Maize

5 Flower Structure

6 Fruits Fruit:= matured & developed ovary and accessory parts that have developed and matured. Fruit:= matured & developed ovary and accessory parts that have developed and matured. Normally contains seeds. Normally contains seeds. All fruits develop from flower ovaries (therefore found exclusively in flowering plants) All fruits develop from flower ovaries (therefore found exclusively in flowering plants)

7 Fruit Regions

8 Fruit Fleshy Fleshy Berries Berries Drupes Drupes Pomes Pomes Dry Dry Those that split at maturity (Dehiscent) Those that dont split at maturity (Indehiscent)

9 Fleshy Fruit Simple fruit (e.g. Drupe) Simple fruit (e.g. Drupe) Berry Berry Aggregate fruit Aggregate fruit Multiple fruit Multiple fruit Pomes (not true fruit) Pomes (not true fruit)

10 Dry fruit Dehiscent Dehiscent Follicle Follicle Capsule Capsule Legume Legume Silique Silique Indihescent Indihescent Achene Grain Nuts Shizocarp Samara

11 Fruits Fleshy Fruits Fleshy Fruits Simple fleshy fruits: develop from a flower with a single pistil. Simple fleshy fruits: develop from a flower with a single pistil. Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission Required for Reproduction or Display

12 Fleshy Fruit E.g. Drupe - Simple fleshy fruit with a single seed enclosed by a hard, stony endocarp (pit). E.g. Drupe - Simple fleshy fruit with a single seed enclosed by a hard, stony endocarp (pit).

13 Fruits Berry: Develops from a compound ovary. Contains more than one seed. Berry: Develops from a compound ovary. Contains more than one seed. True berry: fruit with a thin skin and soft pericarp (e.g. tomato). True berry: fruit with a thin skin and soft pericarp (e.g. tomato). Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission Required for Reproduction or Display

14 Berries Pepos - Thick skins/exocarps (Pumpkins). Pepos - Thick skins/exocarps (Pumpkins).

15 Berries Hesperidium – Fruits with leathery exocarps containing oil glands (e.g. Citrus fruit). Hesperidium – Fruits with leathery exocarps containing oil glands (e.g. Citrus fruit).

16 Fruits Pomes – (not a true fruit) Pomes – (not a true fruit) Pome: Accessory fruit with thick hypanthium. Pome: Accessory fruit with thick hypanthium. Bulk of flesh comes from enlarged floral tube or receptacle that grows up around the ovary. (Apples) Bulk of flesh comes from enlarged floral tube or receptacle that grows up around the ovary. (Apples) Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission Required for Reproduction or Display

17 Fruits Aggregate Fruits Aggregate Fruits Develop from a single flower with numerous pistils. Develop from a single flower with numerous pistils. Pistils mature as a clustered unit on a single receptacle E.g. Raspberries, Strawberries.

18 Fruits Multiple Fruits Multiple Fruits Develop from many individual flowers in a single inflorescence. Develop from many individual flowers in a single inflorescence. E.g. Pineapples, Figs, Maize E.g. Pineapples, Figs, Maize

19 Dry Fruits - Dehiscent Follicle - Splits along one side/seam. Follicle - Splits along one side/seam.

20 Follicle

21 Dry Fruits - Dehiscent Legume (e.g. bean pod) Consists of one folded carpel Consists of one folded carpel Splits along two sides into 2 sections Splits along two sides into 2 sections Each represents half the carpel. Each represents half the carpel. Some legume pods, such as carob and mesquite, are indehiscent and do not split open. Some legume pods, such as carob and mesquite, are indehiscent and do not split open.

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23 Dry Fruits - Dehiscent Silique - Splits along two sides with the seeds in a central position when the two halves separate. (Silique = Two carpels separated by a seed-bearing septum) (Silique = Two carpels separated by a seed-bearing septum)

24 Dry Fruits - Dehiscent Capsules - Consist of at least two carpels, and split in a variety of ways. Capsules - Consist of at least two carpels, and split in a variety of ways.

25 Dry Fruits - Indehiscent Achene Achene Single seed attached to pericarp Single seed attached to pericarp Pericarp fused into husk Pericarp fused into husk Husk - Easily removed Husk - Easily removed Eg: buckweed, sunflower seed Eg: buckweed, sunflower seed Sunflower seed Sunflower seed

26 Dry Fruits - Indehiscent Nut Single seed with hard pericarp/husk Single seed with hard pericarp/husk Cup or cluster of bracts form at base Cup or cluster of bracts form at base Hazel nuts: only true nuts Hazel nuts: only true nuts Walnuts, cashews & pecans = drupes Walnuts, cashews & pecans = drupes Brazil nuts = seeds of capsules Brazil nuts = seeds of capsules

27 Dry Fruits - Indehiscent Grain Grain One-seeded fruit/seed fused with seed coat (pericarp) One-seeded fruit/seed fused with seed coat (pericarp) Eg: wheat Eg: wheat

28 Dry Fruits - Indehiscent Samara Samara Pericarp forms wings Pericarp forms wings Fx: aids in seed dispersal Fx: aids in seed dispersal Can be single or double Can be single or double Eg: Elm tree Eg: Elm tree

29 Dry Fruits - Indehiscent Schizocarp Schizocarp Whole seed separates to form 2 separate 1- seeded fruitlets Whole seed separates to form 2 separate 1- seeded fruitlets E.g.: Apiaceae/carrot family E.g.: Apiaceae/carrot family

30 LESSON TAKE-AWAY Flower Parts Flower Parts Fruit Types Fruit Types


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