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Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds

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Presentation on theme: "Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds"— Presentation transcript:

1 Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds

2 Most herbs: Dicotyledons!

3 Monocotyledons vs Dicotyledons
Monocots More advanced plants One primary leaf Adventitious root system Flower parts arranged in 3’s Leaf veins: parallel. Vascular cambium absent Vascular bundles scattered throughout tissue Dicots More primitive Two primary leaves Tap root system Flower parts arranged in 4’s or 5’s. Leave veins: network system Vascular cambium present Vascular bundles in a ring (‘vein’)

4 Flower Structure Each flower grows from an embryonic primordium  forms the bud. Inflorescences - Group of several to hundreds of flowers. E.g. Maize

5 Flower Structure

6 Fruits Fruit:= matured & developed ovary and accessory parts that have developed and matured. Normally contains seeds. All fruits develop from flower ovaries (therefore found exclusively in flowering plants)

7 Fruit Regions

8 Fruit Fleshy Dry Berries Drupes
Pomes Dry Those that split at maturity (Dehiscent) Those that don’t split at maturity (Indehiscent)

9 Fleshy Fruit Simple fruit (e.g. Drupe) Berry Aggregate fruit
Multiple fruit Pomes (not true fruit)

10 Dry fruit Dehiscent Indihescent Follicle Capsule Legume Silique Achene
Grain Nuts Shizocarp Samara

11 Fruits Fleshy Fruits Simple fleshy fruits: develop from a flower with a single pistil. Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission Required for Reproduction or Display

12 Fleshy Fruit E.g. Drupe - Simple fleshy fruit with a single seed enclosed by a hard, stony endocarp (pit).

13 Fruits Berry: Develops from a compound ovary. Contains more than one seed. True berry: fruit with a thin skin and soft pericarp (e.g. tomato). Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission Required for Reproduction or Display

14 Berries Pepos - Thick skins/exocarps (Pumpkins).

15 Berries Hesperidium – Fruits with leathery exocarps containing oil glands (e.g. Citrus fruit).

16 Fruits Pomes – (not a true fruit)
Pome: Accessory fruit with thick hypanthium. Bulk of flesh comes from enlarged floral tube or receptacle that grows up around the ovary. (Apples) Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission Required for Reproduction or Display

17 Fruits Aggregate Fruits
Develop from a single flower with numerous pistils. Pistils mature as a clustered unit on a single receptacle E.g. Raspberries, Strawberries.                                                                                  

18 Fruits Multiple Fruits
Develop from many individual flowers in a single inflorescence. E.g. Pineapples, Figs, Maize

19 Dry Fruits - Dehiscent Follicle - Splits along one side/seam.

20 Follicle

21 Dry Fruits - Dehiscent Legume (e.g. bean pod)
Consists of one folded carpel Splits along two sides into 2 sections Each represents half the carpel. Some legume pods, such as carob and mesquite, are indehiscent and do not split open.


23 Dry Fruits - Dehiscent Silique - Splits along two sides with the seeds in a central position when the two halves separate. (Silique = Two carpels separated by a seed-bearing septum)

24 Dry Fruits - Dehiscent Capsules - Consist of at least two carpels, and split in a variety of ways.

25 Dry Fruits - Indehiscent
Achene Single seed attached to pericarp Pericarp fused into husk Husk - Easily removed Eg: buckweed, sunflower seed Sunflower seed

26 Dry Fruits - Indehiscent
Nut Single seed with hard pericarp/husk Cup or cluster of bracts form at base Hazel nuts: only true nuts Walnuts, cashews & pecans = drupes Brazil nuts = seeds of capsules

27 Dry Fruits - Indehiscent
Grain One-seeded fruit/seed fused with seed coat (pericarp) Eg: wheat

28 Dry Fruits - Indehiscent
Samara Pericarp forms wings Fx: aids in seed dispersal Can be single or double Eg: Elm tree

29 Dry Fruits - Indehiscent
Schizocarp Whole seed separates to form 2 separate 1-seeded fruitlets E.g.: Apiaceae/carrot family

30 LESSON TAKE-AWAY Flower Parts Fruit Types

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