2What is a fruit?In flowering plants, fruit is a matured, ripened ovary that contains the seeds
3Types of fruitsThree types:SimpleAggregateMultiple
4Simple fruits develop from a single pistil Simple fruits can be either fleshy or dry when matureFleshya. Berry: endocarp, mesocarp and exocarp are softExamples: Grapes, tomato.
5b. Drupe (stone fruit) :outer part of fruit wall is soft and fleshy,endocarp is hard.Examples : apricot, nectarine, mango, olive, Plum, cherry, peach
6Pomeendocarp is papery or leatherymost of the fleshy part of pomes develops from the enlarged base of the perianth (corolla and calyx) that has fused with the ovary wallExample: Apple and pear
7Pepoalso a fleshy fruit but exocarp is a toughhas hard rind when matureExamples: pumpkin, melons, cucumbers
82. Dry (when finished ripening) : Simple dry fruits are dry (not fleshy) at maturity.a. Indehiscent (do not open when they dry)Achene : sunflower family, sedgesCaryopsis: seed coat is fused to the ovary wallExample: cereal grains.iii. Nut : single-ovary wall and seed coat remain separate, ovary wall is very hard E.g.: walnuts, chestnuts, acorns
9b. Dehiscent (split open along one or more sutures) b. Dehiscent (split open along one or more sutures). Simple dry fruits are dry (not fleshy) and open at maturity. Two Kinds: (1).Capsule – fruit is dry at maturity and splits open along several seams E.g.: Cotton, poppy (2). Legumes – Legumes are dry at maturity and split open along one seams E.g.: peas, beans and etc.
10Aggregated fruitsformed from a flower with numerous simple Pistils, all ripening simultaneouslyE.g.: Blackberries, raspberries and strawberries
11Multiple fruits formed from a cluster of flowers. Multiple fruit develops from ovaries of several flowers borne/fused together on the same stalk.E.g.: Pineapple, mulberry, fig.
14Why dispersal?fall directly underneath the mother plant and the seedlings grow up close togetherthey soon exhaust the soil of its essential food constituents.Besides, the availability space, light and air under such a condition fall far short of the demand.A struggle for existencethey may easily fall prey to attacks by herbivorous animals.
15Seeds and fruits dispersed by winds Wings:develop one or more appendages in the form of thin, flat, membranous wings,the seeds and fruits themselves are light and dry.help them float in the air and facilitate their dispersion by wind.Parachute mechanism:calyx is modified into hair like structures known as pappus.is persistent in the fruit and opens out in an umbrella-like fashion.gets detached from the parent plant, the pappus acts like a parachutehelps it float in the air.
16Censer Mechanismthe seeds of certain plants can be scattered by the wind only after the dehiscence of the fruitHairsseeds are provided with hairs with either 1 or 2 tufts or all over the body.hairs aids the distribution of seeds by the wind.Persistent Styles.the style are persistent and very feathery.The fruits are, thus, easily carried away by wind.Light Seeds and FruitsSome seeds and fruits are so light and minute in size that they may easily be carried away by the gentlest breeze.
17Seeds and fruits Dispersed by water usually develop floating devices in the form of spongy or fibrous outer coats.The fibrous fruit of coconut is capable of floating long distance in the sea without suffering any injury.coconut is commonly seen on sea coasts and marine island.
18Seeds Dispersed by Explosive Fruits Many fruit burst with a sudden jerk, with the result that the seeds are scattered a few yards away from the parent plant.
19Seeds and Fruits Dispersed by Animals Hooked fruits:many fruits are provided with hooks, barbs, spines, bristles, stiff hairs, etc, on their bodiesby means of which they adhere to the bodies of woolly animals as well as to the clothing of mankindunwittingly carried by them to distant places.Sticky fruits:the fruits of Boerhavia and Plumbago have sticky glands on their body.The seeds of mistletoe are very sticky.
20Fleshy fruits:many such fruits, coloured conspicuously, are carried from one place to another for the sake of their beauty.Edible fruits:human beings and birds are active and useful agents in distributing such fruits.birds feed upon the pulpy portion of fruits like guava, grape, fig, etc., and pass out the undigested seeds with the faeces.Bats and squirrels are also useful in dispersing seeds and fruits.