2 The FRUIT (Fructus )A fruit is a result of the development of the gynaecium due to fertilization. It is a developed or ripened ovary or ovaries.Function of Fruit:Protection of the seedNourishment of the seed during its development
3 Gynaecium ( Pistel)The female organs of the flower, consisting of one or more carpels forming one or several ovaries with their stigmas and styles.
6 Fruits are classified as: True fruitComposite fruitFalse fruitfruit is formed from the gynaecium of a single flower alonefruit is formed from the whole inflorescence and not from a single flowerother parts of the flower take part in its formation
7 single ovary, syncarpous True fruitSimple fruitsingle ovary, syncarpousmonocarpellaryA)Simple, Dry, dehiscent.B)Simple, Dry, indehiscent.C)Simple, Dry, schizo-carpicor splitting.D)Simple, SucculentAggregate fruitApocarpous gynoeciumfree carpels unitedon a single receptacleStar-anise
8 i- Simple Fruits: A) Simple, Dry, Dehiscent Fruits: The pericarp becomes dry and remains attached to the plant and splits when ripe to release the enclosed seeds. 1-Legume(pod):opened through ventral and dorsal sutures
9 2-Follicle: dehisces by the inner suture only. 3-Capsule:.The capsules may dehisce by:A-Valves:Star AnisePores or holes:b- Lid:
10 B) Simple, Dry, Indehiscent Fruits: The pericarp becomes dry, they are usually detached but do not split open when ripe. :1-Achene,2-Caryopsis or GrainIt is an achene in which the pericarp and testa are fused together as Wheat.3-NutIt is similar to an achene but bigger .The nut has a hard and woody or leathery pericarp as Chestnut.
11 C) Simple, Dry, Schizocarpic or Splitting Fruits: The pericarp becomes dry. On ripening, they split up into a number of one-seeded, indehiscent parts called mericarps. They include several types but the most familiar type is:-Cremocarp: -A fruit formed of bicarpellary ovary.-The ovary is inferior and bilocular.-The cremocarp splits longitudinally between the two locules into two one-seeded indehiscent mericarps as in the umbelliferae.MLC in mericarps
12 D) Simple and Succulent Fruits: *Part or most of the pericarp is fleshy.*Usually indehiscent1-Drupe:. The epicarp is leathery; the mesocarp is fleshy, the endocarp is hard and woody and encloses one seed as peach, OliveTomato2-Berry:. It is usually many seeded as Capsicum,melons, cucumber,Orange, Lemon.
13 II- False Fruits (pseudocarps fruit): Derived from a mature ovary or ovaries of a single flower together with other parts of the same flowerThe receptacle becomes swollen, fleshy, constituting the main part of the fruit, and enclosing the leathery or hard pericarp.
14 StructureThe fruit consists of the pericarp which is a swollen and modified ovary wall, enclosing the seeds which are arranged on the placenta.The wall of the pericarp is divided into three regions: the outer epicarp, the inner endocarp and the mesocarp in between1- epicarp: the outer epidermis.2-The endocarp formed of:The inner epidermis only3-The mesocarp: in which the vascular strands ramify. It may be: Succulent, parenchymatous, or may consist of several layers of different types
15 *General Characters of Umbelliferous Fruits The fruit is true, simple, dry, schizocarpic, cremocarp. The apex of the fruit stylopod (represents the remains of the style, stigma and nectary disc).When the fruit splits, it divides vertically into two mericarps. Each mericarp has a flat surface, the commissural surface, and a rounded surface, the dorsal surface.Each mericarp is attached to the pedicle by a carpophore.Surface of the cremocarp is characterized by the presence of 10 primary ridges (5 on each mericarp) (V.B.)and 2ry ridges (vittae).The fruits are derived from inferior ovary due to the presence of remains of floral parts just beneath the stylopod at the fruit apex.
16 1)Epicarp is usually one row (epidermis). The seed is attached by its testa to the pericarp (fused) filling the whole locule.The seed is apically placented and contains a small embryo that is embedded in an oily endospermB -Histology1)Epicarp is usually one row (epidermis).2) Glandular trichomes or non-glandular.3) Schizogenous secreting ducts (vittae) in the mesocarp, containing volatile oil or bitter principles; six in r in each mericarp.4) The vascular bundle is bicollateral fibro- vascular bundle .5) The endocarp is composed of one row of narrow elongated cells. In surface view, parallel cells, arranged in groups, either in parquetry or non- parquetry manner.6) Endosperm thick cellulosic cells containing fixed oil and aleurone grains. Each aleurone grain contains a globoid and one or more micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.
17 Types of endosperm Campylospermous endosperm (groove) e.g Conium fruit Coelospermous endosperm (curved) e.g corianderOrthospermous endosperm (straight)e.g. FennelCampylospermous endosperm (groove)e.g Conium fruit