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Reproductive Morphology: Flowers and Fruits

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Presentation on theme: "Reproductive Morphology: Flowers and Fruits"— Presentation transcript:

1 Reproductive Morphology: Flowers and Fruits
Plants and People Reproductive Morphology: Flowers and Fruits

2 Why a Flower?

3 The Reproductive Structure of Flowering Plants:
Perianth Petal: Corolla Sepal:Calyx

4 Flower Anatomy Calyx: the outer whorl of sepals; typically these are green, but are petal-like in some species.

5 Flower Anatomy Corolla: the whorl of petals, which are usually thin, soft and colored to attract animals that help the process of pollination. The coloration may extend into the ultraviolet, which is visible to the compound eyes of insects, but not to the eyes of birds.

6 Flower Anatomy Androecium (from Greek andros oikia: man's house): one or more stamens, each with a filament topped by an anther where pollen is produced. Pollen contains the male gametes.

7 Flower Anatomy Gynoecium (from Greek gynaikos oikia: woman's house): all the female parts—the pistil(s) with ovule(s) inside.

8 Flower Anatomy carpel fertilization carpel structure

9 Evolution of the Carpel
See figures 3.1 and 3.2 in your book

10 The Carpel ovule locule
The carpel is the basic unit of the gynoecium. Each carpel consists of an ovary connected to a stigma by the style. Within each carpel are one or more ovules, which will become the seed(s). The area of attachment is called the placenta (pl. = placentae) and the empty space in the chamber is called the locule (pl. = locules). The dividing walls are called the septa. ovule locule transverse section longitudinal single carpel fused carpels

11 The Single Carpel unicarpellate apocarpous
A gynoecium with only one carpel is termed unicarpellate. A gynoecium of many separate carpels is termed apocarpous. TS LS unicarpellate apocarpous

12 Fused Carpels Evolution of the fused carpel syncarpous
A gynoecium with many fused carpels is termed syncarpous and the flower is said to have a compound pistil. Evolution of the fused carpel syncarpous

13 Placentation basal placentation: attachment of ovules to the bottom of the ovary. One locule, no septa. apical placentation: The attachment of the ovules is at the apex (top) of the ovary. One locule, no septa.

14 Placentation parietal placentation: ovules are attached to the side walls of the ovary (or extrusions of the wall) such that an ovary usually has one locule and therefore no septa. Can only be found in a syncarpous gynoecium; axile placentation: ovules are attached to an axis derived from the connate margins of the component carpels, such that an ovary is divided into two or more locules by septa. The ovules are borne along the central axis. Can only found in a syncarpous gynoecium.

15 Placentation free or central placentation: ovules attached to a free-standing central column in a syncarpous, unilocular ovary (one locule, no septa) marginal placentation: ovules are attached to the folded margins of the carpel, giving the appearance that there is only one elongated placenta on one side of the ovary. Can only be found in a simple pistil. This is conspicuous in legumes.

16 How Many Carpels? Locules?

17 Flower Structure Variation
perfect imperfect imperfect

18 Flower Structure Variation Ovary Position
A. ovary superior, floral parts hypogynous B. ovary inferior, floral parts epigynous C. ovary half-inferior D. ovary superior, floral parts perigynous, hypanthium cup shaped

19 Flower Structure Variation
A flower having sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils is complete; if a flower is lacking one or more of these whorls, it is said to be incomplete. complete incomplete no stamens present = incomplete

20 Inflorescences An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers. It may be branched or unbranched. Modifications can involve the length, variations in the proportions, compressions, and swellings, and the order in which the flowers open. Usually the modifications have been evolved to optimize the plant’s method of pollen dispersal.

21 Pollen Dispersal by Animals
Bees, Beetles, Bats, Birds, Butterflies, etc…

22 Symmetry Flowers that are actinomorphic have "radial symmetry", meaning they can be divided into symmetrical halves by more than one plane passing through the axis, much as a pie can be cut into several equal and identical pieces. Zygomorphic flowers have "bilateral” symmetry, where flowers can be divided by only a single plane into two mirror-image halves, much like a person's face.

23 Dicot versus Monocot Dicot Monocot

24 Fruit and Seed Formation
A fruit develops from an ovary. A seed develops from an ovule.

25 Dry Fruits Dry fruits have the pericarp (fruit wall) dry at maturity. Fruits which split open to release the seeds are termed dehiscent. Those that do not split open are called indehiscent.

26 Indehiscent, Dry Fruits - Achene
Achene - single seeded, thin pericarp, seed coat is separate from ovary wall Example: sunflower and strawberry “seeds”

27 Indehiscent, Dry Fruits - Grain
Grain (caryopsis) - single seeded, pericarp fused with the ovary wall Example: corn, wheat, rice, oats, etc. fused

28 Indehiscent, Dry Fruits - Nut
Nut - single seeded, with hard or bony pericarp, often wholly or partially surrounded by a husk of bracts Example: hazelnut, walnut, pecan

29 Dehiscent, Dry Fruits - Legumes
Legume - usually dehisces along two sutures; from a simple pistil. Example: beans, peas, soybeans caylx one folded carpel seed/ovule style Unopened Legume Legume Split Open (1 carpel, 2 seams)

30 Dehiscent, Dry Fruits - Capsule
Capsule - usually from a compound pistil, usually many seeded. Pericarp opens with pores or slits Example: okra (which we eat before maturity.) seed septa locule dehisces along locules (loculicidal) okra is a capsule

31 Fleshy Fruits - Berry Berry - one to multiple seeds, mesocarp is fleshy, endocarp is soft. Example: grape, tomato

32 Fleshy Fruits - Drupe Drupe - usually one seeded, exocarp a thin skin, mesocarp fleshy, endocarp usually hard. Example: peach, plum

33 Fleshy Fruits - Hesperidium
Hesperidium - special kind of berry with leathery rind and oil glands dotting the surface. Example: lime, orange

34 Fleshy Fruits - Pepo Pepo fruits are berrylike, with a hard rind; almost always with three carpels and parietal placentation. Examples: melon, squash

35 Fleshy Fruits - Pome Pome fruits have most of the flesh derived from a floral cup and receptacle. Example: Apple, pear (receptacle)

36 Other Fruit Types (Non-Simple)
Multiple Aggregate Accessory Parthenocarpic

37 Non-Simple Fruits - Multiple
Multipe fruits are formed by the fusion of fruits of numerous independent flowers Example: pineapple, fig

38 Non-Simple Fruits - Aggregate
Aggregate fruits are those formed from several separate ovaries within a single flower Examples: raspberry, blackberry

39 Non-Simple Fruits - Accessory
Accessory fruits are those where the “fruit” part is derived from something other than ovary tissue. A strawberry is a swollen receptacle and the seeds on the surface are the true fruits, called achenes.

40 Today’s Lab Activities
You need to get information from the prop cards to add to your chart. For each crop, record if it is a monocot or dicot, family and genus/species name, fruit type, origin and carpel number (for fruits.) For some, carpel number will be given and for others you will need to determine the carpel number yourself by counting the carpels by either counting locules or points of attachments for seeds in an open fruit. WARNING! If you have a severe allergy to poison ivy, you should not eat mango, pistachios, or cashews unless you know you are not sensitive to them Other than allergy concerns, you are encouraged to taste things that are new to you by cutting small pieces to eat !! Have fun!





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