3 The Reproductive Structure of Flowering Plants: PerianthPetal: CorollaSepal:Calyx
4 Flower AnatomyCalyx: the outer whorl of sepals; typically these are green, but are petal-like in some species.
5 Flower AnatomyCorolla: the whorl of petals, which are usually thin, soft and colored to attract animals that help the process of pollination.The coloration may extend into the ultraviolet, which is visible to the compound eyes of insects, but not to the eyes of birds.
6 Flower AnatomyAndroecium (from Greek andros oikia: man's house): one or more stamens, each with a filament topped by an anther where pollen is produced.Pollen contains the male gametes.
7 Flower AnatomyGynoecium (from Greek gynaikos oikia: woman's house): all the female parts—the pistil(s) with ovule(s) inside.
9 Evolution of the Carpel See figures 3.1 and 3.2 in your book
10 The Carpel ovule locule The carpel is the basic unit of the gynoecium. Each carpel consists of an ovary connected to a stigma by the style.Within each carpel are one or more ovules, which will become the seed(s). The area of attachment is called the placenta (pl. = placentae) and the empty space in the chamber is called the locule (pl. = locules). The dividing walls are called the septa.ovuleloculetransversesectionlongitudinalsingle carpelfused carpels
11 The Single Carpel unicarpellate apocarpous A gynoecium with only one carpel is termed unicarpellate. A gynoecium of many separate carpels is termed apocarpous.TSLSunicarpellateapocarpous
12 Fused Carpels Evolution of the fused carpel syncarpous A gynoecium with many fused carpels is termed syncarpous and the flower is said to have a compound pistil.Evolution of the fused carpelsyncarpous
13 Placentationbasal placentation: attachment of ovules to the bottom of the ovary. One locule, no septa.apical placentation: The attachment of the ovules is at the apex (top) of the ovary. One locule, no septa.
14 Placentationparietal placentation: ovules are attached to the side walls of the ovary (or extrusions of the wall) such that an ovary usually has one locule and therefore no septa. Can only be found in a syncarpous gynoecium;axile placentation: ovules are attached to an axis derived from the connate margins of the component carpels, such that an ovary is divided into two or more locules by septa. The ovules are borne along the central axis. Can only found in a syncarpous gynoecium.
15 Placentationfree or central placentation: ovules attached to a free-standing central column in a syncarpous, unilocular ovary (one locule, no septa)marginal placentation: ovules are attached to the folded margins of the carpel, giving the appearance that there is only one elongated placenta on one side of the ovary. Can only be found in a simple pistil. This is conspicuous in legumes.
18 Flower Structure Variation Ovary Position A. ovary superior, floral parts hypogynousB. ovary inferior, floral parts epigynousC. ovary half-inferiorD. ovary superior, floral parts perigynous, hypanthium cup shaped
19 Flower Structure Variation A flower having sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils is complete; if a flower is lacking one or more of these whorls, it is said to be incomplete.completeincompleteno stamens present = incomplete
20 InflorescencesAn inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers. It may be branched or unbranched. Modifications can involve the length, variations in the proportions, compressions, and swellings, and the order in which the flowers open.Usually the modifications have been evolved to optimize the plant’s method of pollen dispersal.
22 SymmetryFlowers that are actinomorphic have "radial symmetry", meaning they can be divided into symmetrical halves by more than one plane passing through the axis, much as a pie can be cut into several equal and identical pieces.Zygomorphic flowers have "bilateral” symmetry, where flowers can be divided by only a single plane into two mirror-image halves, much like a person's face.
24 Fruit and Seed Formation A fruit develops from an ovary. A seed develops from an ovule.
25 Dry FruitsDry fruits have the pericarp (fruit wall) dry at maturity. Fruits which split open to release the seeds are termed dehiscent. Those that do not split open are called indehiscent.
26 Indehiscent, Dry Fruits - Achene Achene - single seeded, thin pericarp, seed coat is separate from ovary wall Example: sunflower and strawberry “seeds”
27 Indehiscent, Dry Fruits - Grain Grain (caryopsis) - single seeded, pericarp fused with the ovary wall Example: corn, wheat, rice, oats, etc.fused
28 Indehiscent, Dry Fruits - Nut Nut - single seeded, with hard or bony pericarp, often wholly or partially surrounded by a husk of bracts Example: hazelnut, walnut, pecan
29 Dehiscent, Dry Fruits - Legumes Legume - usually dehisces along two sutures; from a simple pistil. Example: beans, peas, soybeanscaylxone folded carpelseed/ovulestyleUnopened LegumeLegume Split Open(1 carpel, 2 seams)
30 Dehiscent, Dry Fruits - Capsule Capsule - usually from a compound pistil, usually many seeded. Pericarp opens with pores or slits Example: okra (which we eat before maturity.)seedseptaloculedehisces along locules(loculicidal)okra is a capsule
31 Fleshy Fruits - BerryBerry - one to multiple seeds, mesocarp is fleshy, endocarp is soft. Example: grape, tomato
32 Fleshy Fruits - DrupeDrupe - usually one seeded, exocarp a thin skin, mesocarp fleshy, endocarp usually hard. Example: peach, plum
33 Fleshy Fruits - Hesperidium Hesperidium - special kind of berry with leathery rind and oil glands dotting the surface. Example: lime, orange
34 Fleshy Fruits - PepoPepo fruits are berrylike, with a hard rind; almost always with three carpels and parietal placentation. Examples: melon, squash
35 Fleshy Fruits - PomePome fruits have most of the flesh derived from a floral cup and receptacle. Example: Apple, pear(receptacle)
36 Other Fruit Types (Non-Simple) MultipleAggregateAccessoryParthenocarpic
37 Non-Simple Fruits - Multiple Multipe fruits are formed by the fusion of fruits of numerous independent flowers Example: pineapple, fig
38 Non-Simple Fruits - Aggregate Aggregate fruits are those formed from several separate ovaries within a single flower Examples: raspberry, blackberry
39 Non-Simple Fruits - Accessory Accessory fruits are those where the “fruit” part is derived from something other than ovary tissue. A strawberry is a swollen receptacle and the seeds on the surface are the true fruits, called achenes.
40 Today’s Lab Activities You need to get information from the prop cards to add to your chart. For each crop, record if it is a monocot or dicot, family and genus/species name, fruit type, origin and carpel number (for fruits.)For some, carpel number will be given and for others you will need to determine the carpel number yourself by counting the carpels by either counting locules or points of attachments for seeds in an open fruit.WARNING! If you have a severe allergy to poison ivy, you should not eat mango, pistachios, or cashews unless you know you are not sensitive to themOther than allergy concerns, you are encouraged to taste things that are new to you by cutting small pieces to eat !! Have fun!