Presentation on theme: "Crises of the High Middle Ages Challenge to Religious Authority The Black Death The Hundred Years War The Great Schism Peasant Revolts."— Presentation transcript:
Crises of the High Middle Ages Challenge to Religious Authority The Black Death The Hundred Years War The Great Schism Peasant Revolts
England and France weave troubles War with each other at the end of the 13 th century. Both begin taxing the clergy to pay for the war. Pope Boniface VIII issues a decree that condems this act…the pope loses as England and France impose an embargo
Unam Sanctam Pope Boniface issues a decree placing all Christians in his hands legally… He is kidnapped by French mercenaries only to die after being freed. Papal power in question.
The Black Death Europe’s enhanced trade networks a breeding ground for this biological nightmare. Began in Kaffa along the ports of the Crimean (Black Sea).
Bacterial Infection Spread through the fleas that fed on their host rats, the fleas were easily transmitted along these trade routes and spread from person to person with ease.
Facilitating the disease Urban sprawl Overcrowding Hygiene Trade
Loss of life Florence, Italy: 2/3 1.4 million of 4.2 English
Impact Recurrence ravaged Europe until the 17 th century. Massive impact on wages Mayhem for minorities Tremendous population loss. Increased productivity and social balance? Tax burden Lessened power of the church
The Hundred Years War Cause: England’s claim to rule the French region known as Aquitaine. English king had French roots back to the famed French king Phillip the Fair
More than just control… At stake were economic issues- control of textile trade and trade routes. The war saw an amazing /unified effort by both countries to pain the other as an adversary.
England domination See maps on 424 in the McKay text. England victory keyed to the Longbow.
The Tide Turns After key victories by the English at Poiters and Crecy, victory seemed certain. Joan of Arc changed that, bringing a spirit of unity, discipline, and faith.
Wars results Increased taxation on peasants—leading to peasant revolts in nearly all European countries Rise in Nationalism Rise of parliaments in Europe, not in France) Death, destruction, and the status quo? New methods of warfare
The Great Schism (part II) 1309-1376 popes lived in Avignon, France. Pope Clement, an ailing elderly pope pressured under French jurisdiction. Babylonian captivity
Babylonian Captivity The Pope lost extraordinary prestige. Returned by Gregory in 1378. It was short lived.
Urban and Clement VII Urban demanded a return of papal authority, renegade cardinals fled to Avignon and continued the dual papacy.
A European Alliance As the dual elected popes quarreled over who was “legit”. European powers chose sides and popes. Issue finally resolved at the Council of Constance and reform so this couldn’t happen again. Anti-Clerical movments such as those of John Wyclif and the Lollards emerged.
Peasant Revolts One of the impacts of plague and war were the revolts that ripped across late 14 th century Europe. The most violent being that in England in 1381.
Causes Plague Hundred Years War Imbalanced tax burdens. Leadership of Wat Tyler and Jack Straw amongst others.
Impacts Signaled an end to Feudalism Spread to nearly every European country, put the wealthy and landed on the guard. Devastating violence against against Jews, who were blamed for most events in the Middle Ages.