Presentation on theme: "The Crusades The Fight for the Holy land. Causes of the Crusades The Pope –Wanted to reunite with Byzantine Empire (Eastern Orthodox) –Wanted to show."— Presentation transcript:
Causes of the Crusades The Pope –Wanted to reunite with Byzantine Empire (Eastern Orthodox) –Wanted to show power of Papacy The Knights –Promised Heaven for crusading –Wanted plunder The Merchants –Wealth from major trading cities in Eastern Europe and Middle East
“God Will’s it!” Pope Urban II calls for the crusades in 1095. 8 official crusades and numerous unofficial crusades follow.
Results of 1 st Crusade More than ¾ of Crusaders died before reaching the Muslims In 1099 the Christians captured about 400 miles of land around Jerusalem Muslims were slaughtered and Jews burned to death
King’s Crusade Third crusade led by three powerful monarchs –King Philip Augustus, France –Emperor Frederick I, Germany –King Richard I (“Lionheart”), England Only Richard I survived and made a peaceful agreement with Saladin in 1192, leaving Muslim control of Holy land, but allowed Christians to visit and prosper.
4 th Crusade Never Reaches Jerusalem Pope Innocent III ordered 4 th crusade Crusaders attacked Island of Zara and Constantinople instead, for wealth Pope excommunicated them, but permanent split between Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox resulted
Crusades 5-8 Crusades 5, 7 & 8 were focused mostly on Islamic cities in Egypt and N. Africa, and did not accomplish much. Crusade 6 actually saw Jerusalem back in the hands of the Christians, but Pope excommunicated the negotiator of the deal and Jerusalem ended in the hands of the Muslims.
Effects of Crusade Decline of papal prestige –Failure to gain control of Holy Land Decline of noble power –Knights died in battle and of disease and lost land Decline of Byzantine power –4 th Crusade dealt serious blow, it never fully recovered Increase in monarch power –Kings took advantage of noble misfortune Increase in religious intolerance –Tensions between Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Muslim, and Jews Increase in trade –Crusaders like spices and good of Middle East sparked Age of Exploration