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THE CRUSADES – FIGHT FOR THE HOLY LAND. Obj: To understand the consequences of the Crusades by identifying the background & motives that led to them.

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Presentation on theme: "THE CRUSADES – FIGHT FOR THE HOLY LAND. Obj: To understand the consequences of the Crusades by identifying the background & motives that led to them."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE CRUSADES – FIGHT FOR THE HOLY LAND

2 Obj: To understand the consequences of the Crusades by identifying the background & motives that led to them.

3 BACKGROUND SPREAD OF ISLAM INTO SPAIN 711 RELATIONS BETWEEN CHRISTIANS & MUSLIMS DETERIORATE AT DEATH OF ABD AL-RAHMAN III 961 N. SPANISH CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS MOVE SOUTH INCREASED TRADE IN MEDITERRA- NEAN BETWEEN MUSLIMS, BYZ., EUROPEANS DISINTIGRATION WITHIN BYZANTINE EMPIRE PROBLEMS BETWEEN ROME & CON- STANTINOPLE

4 TURKS & ALEXIUS I – BYZANTINES ASK FOR HELP BATTLE OF MANZIKERT 1071 TURKS MUSLIM CONVERTS 1071 CHALLENGED BY BYZANTINE EMPEROR ASKS POPE FOR HELP POPE AGREES BECAUSE HE HAS ULTERIOR MOTIVES LIBERATE JERUSALEM FROM INFIDEL DANGEROUS TIMES IN MIDDLE EAST FOR CHRISTIAN PILGRIMS

5 POPE URBAN II & THE CALL AT CLAREMONT FRANCE UNION B/W EASTERN & WESTERN CHURCHES HIS GOAL “TAKE UP WEAPONS AGAINST THE INFIDEL” 1095 FIRST CRUSADE ABSOLUTION IN ADVANCE FOR ANY AND ALL SINS MAY BE COMMITTED FORGIVENESS OF PRIOR SINS AND ENTRANCE INTO HEAVEN - INDULGENCE DEUS VULT – IT IS GOD’S WILL CRUSADER STATES: EDESSA, ANTIOCH, JERUSALEM & TRIPOLI

6 2 ND CRUSADE 1144 FALL OF EDESSA – ST. BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX RULERS OF FRANCE & GERMANY ENLISTED BY ST. BERNARD TOTAL FAILURE ARMIES DIDN’T COORDINATE W/ EACH OTHER, NOT WELL ORGANIZED, NO COOPERATION FROM CRUSADERS LIVING IN LEVANT – FOUND A WAY TO MAKE IT WORK FOR THEM FAILED PER BERNARD DUE TO LOSS OF GOD’S FAVOR DUE TO HUMAN SINFULNESS

7 3 RD CRUSADE – FALL OF JERUSALEM 1187 SALADIN TAKES JERUSALEM KINGS CRUSADE: BARBAROSSA, RICHARD I OF ENGLAND, PHILIP II AUGUSTUS FRANCE RESPONSE OVERWHELMING BARBAROSSA INITIALLY SUCCESSFUL BUT DROWNED AFTER BEING THROWN FROM HIS HORSE & ARMY DETERIORATED RICHARD & PHILIP SUCCESSES EARLY ALONG COAST BUT INLAND DISASTER STRUCK - POLITICS RICHARD I NEGOTIATED SETTLE- MENT W/ SALADIN & SAFE & FREE ACCESS FOR CHRISTIAN PILGRIMS

8 4 TH CRUSADE – DEATH OF SALADIN 1193 SANCTIONED BY INNOCENT III EGYPT WAS GOAL ROLE OF VENETIAN TRADERS ZARA – CHRISTIAN VS. CHRISTIAN CARELESS PREPARATION & INADEQUATE FINANCING DIVERTED TO CONSTANTINOPLE AT REQUEST OF PATRIARCH PLUNDERED BY CRUSADERS CONSTANTINOPLE SACKED 1204, RELICS, ARTIFACTS, ANYTHING THEY COULD GET THEIR HANDS ON WERE STOLEN & BROUGHT BACK TO EUROPE

9 TETRARCHS – ST. MARKS, VENICE GRIFFIN – PISA CATHEDRAL, PISA HAGIA SOPHIA NOW A MOSQUE, ISTANBUL

10 CONSEQUENCES OF THE CRUSADES REOPENED TRADE BETWEEN EAST & WEST – DID IT EVER REALLY GO AWAY? GROWTH OF ITALIAN PORT CITIES: VENICE, GENOA, PISA SANCTIFICATION OF VIOLENCE VISIBLE RELICS IN LEVANT ARE CASTLE RUINS UNIFICATION OF EASTERN ORTHODOX & ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCES NEVER REALIZED 1 ST WIDESPREAD ATTACK ON JEWS EVEN AFTER POPE TOLD CRUSADERS THEY WERE TO BE LEFT ALONE


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