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Crusades Review – study your packet and the sheet we are completing today Listing goals and contributing factors.

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Presentation on theme: "Crusades Review – study your packet and the sheet we are completing today Listing goals and contributing factors."— Presentation transcript:

1 Crusades Review – study your packet and the sheet we are completing today Listing goals and contributing factors

2 What are the four contributing factors of the Crusades 1. Feudalism 2. Chivalry 3. Religious idealism 4. Weakening of the Byzantine empire

3 What is a crusade? Military expedition

4 What territory was taken by the Seljuk Turks, which prompted the first Crusade? Holy Land / Jerusalem

5 From which city did the Pope preach for the 1 st Crusade Clermont, So. France

6 What Pope called for the first Crusade? Pope Urban II

7 Who actually sent the pope a letter asking him to call a crusade? Alexius the Byzantine Emperor

8 Why did the Byzantine Emperor ask for the pope’s help? To fight the Seljuk Turks (Muslims)

9 What did the Crusaders shout? God Wills It!

10 What did the Pope say the Crusaders should be marked with and shout? Crusiata & God Wills It!

11 What were the popes goals for calling a crusade? 1.Show power/strength to call a crusade 2.Conquer the Holy Land 3.Reunite the Byzantine and Roman Catholic churches under his leadership 4.Stop Christians from killing Christians by giving them a real enemy to fight – the infidel Saracens 5.Unite Byzantines under the pope’s banner

12 What were a Knight’s goals? 1.Religious zeal – God Wills It 2.Win glory in battle 3.Win wealth 4.Excitement of new lands 5.Business opportunities 6.All sins forgiven if you die

13 What were the merchants goals? Win control of key trade routes Gain wealth

14 The goals of Popes and Knights According to the pope Christ demanded this Crusade All who died on the Crusade would have immediate remission of sins The pope’s point – too many Christians were fighting Christians – The pope suggested they should fight infidels

15 One result of the Crusades was the rise of royal power. What caused it? Decline in the number of nobles and their loss of economic power due to financing their crusades

16 How did religious intolerance increase? Jews What group of people will continue to be scapegoats even after the Crusades ended? Hostility between Muslims and Christians continued

17 Which three religions regard Jerusalem and Palestine as holy? Islam/Muslim Judaism/Jews Christianity/Christians

18 Which of these three groups will continue to control the Holy Land Muslims / Islam

19 At first their leadership was strengthened but the failure of the Crusades will lead to a decline of their power? Popes

20 How did the Crusades cause a decline in the power and prestige of the Byzantine Empire 4 th Crusade led to the sack of Constantinople They regained their independence but not their power and prestige

21 What area/country became a commercial trading center because of the Crusades? Italy

22 What did the Italians often do to the later Crusades so their trade would not be disrupted? Sabotaged them

23 First Crusade Called by Pope Urban II after receiving as letter from Alexius, the Byzantine Emperor No Kings – excommunicated Nobles went Long Journey to the Holy Land Battle won them Jerusalem Set up a Crusader kingdom using feudalism Only Successful Crusade

24 Peasant Crusade Leaders: Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless Part of the First Crusade Unruly group of Crusaders killed Jews and attacked towns on their way to Constantinople Never reached the Holy Land Unsuccessful

25 Second Crusade Leaders: Louis VII of France whose wife Eleanor of Aquataine joined him Conrad III, Holy Roman Emperor The leaders fought separately and were always quarreling Unsuccessful

26 Third Crusade Leaders: Richard I the Lion Hearted of England - most successful European leader of this crusade (the only one who actually fought), kidnapped and held for ransom on his way home. Philip II Augustus of France – fell ill and returned to France Frederick I Barbarossa the Holy Roman Emperor – drowns on his way to the Holy Land Saladin, Saracen (Muslim) leader This Crusade of three kings ended up being fought by only 1 king Richard, who negotiated a truce allowing Christian pilgrims to visit holy places. Jerusalem remained in Muslim Control (unsuccessful)

27 Fourth Crusade Called by Pope Innocent III French knights were transported by the Venetians Crusaders never made it to the Holy Land They attacked two Christian cities, Zara and Constantinople Unsuccessful

28 Children’s Crusade Leaders: Stephen of France and Nicholas of Germany These Crusaders met many nasty fates. Some drown, some were eaten by wolves, and others were sold into slavery Unsuccessful

29 Sixth Crusade Called by Pope Gregory IX Lead by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor Leader spoke Arabic and negotiated a peace settlement transferring Jerusalem to the Christians without shedding any blood Pope refused to recognize the treaty since Frederick II was under excommunication for not going on the 5 th Crusade Unsuccessful

30 Seventh and Eighth Crusades Leader: Louis IX (St. Louis of France) Louis leads both Crusades Crusades aimed at Egypt / North Africa Captured and held until ransom is paid Never makes it to the Holy Land Unsuccessful

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