Presentation on theme: "1095: First Crusade Event: Pope Urban II called on knights of Christendom to rescue Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the infidels Significance: Led by."— Presentation transcript:
1095: First Crusade Event: Pope Urban II called on knights of Christendom to rescue Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the infidels Significance: Led by counts and nobles, not kings. Thousands responded; 25% reached the Holy Land
1099 Event: Crusaders captured Jerusalem Significance: Crusaders controlled an area from Edessa to Jerusalem. Thousands of Jews and Muslims were killed
1144: Second Crusade Event: Edessa was recaptured by the Turks Significance: Crusaders were defeated
1187: Third Crusade Event: Jerusalem fell to Saladin and the Seljuk Turks Significance: King’s Crusade - Philip II of France, Frederick I of HRE, and Richard I of England
1192 Event: Three year truce between Richard I and Saladin Significance: Unarmed Christian pilgrims could freely visit the holy places in Jerusalem
1202: Fourth Crusade Event: Pope Innocent III called for yet another crusade to recapture Jerusalem Significance: Merchants promised ships money in exchange for attacking the island of Zara. Pope protested the diversion
1204 Event: Constantinople was sacked and controlled by the crusaders for 57 years Significance: Any hope for a reunification of Eastern and Western Churches was forever lost
1229: Sixth Crusade Event: Frederick II of HRE negotiated a treaty with Saladin’s nephew Significance: Jerusalem was returned to Christian rule but Frederick was excommunicated for entering a pact with the devil
1291 Event: City of Acre fell to the Muslims Significance: Concept of Christendom was lessened; replaced by loyalty one’s homelands (England, France, and Spain)
The 5th, 7th, and 8th crusades were aimed at Islamic cities in Egypt and N. Africa. French King Louis IX won wide respect and was later declared a saint, although these crusades accomplished little.
Started by Nicholas of Cologne Joined by 1000’s of children Journeyed to Rome where Pope told them to go home At same time @ 20,000 French children boarded 7 ships for the Holy Land 2 ships destroyed, other 5 sailed to North Africa where the children were sold as slaves
Popes’ Goals: hope to heal the breach between Western and Eastern churches with pope emerging as head of united church Knights’ goals: forgiveness for sins, chance to win glory in battle; earthly rewards Merchants’ goals: wanted total control of rich trade routes
Sanctified the use of violence in defense of an idea
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