Presentation on theme: "Feudalism. What were the Crusades? Seljuk Turks threatened Byzantium 1093, Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus asked Pope Urban II in Rome for help."— Presentation transcript:
What were the Crusades? Seljuk Turks threatened Byzantium 1093, Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus asked Pope Urban II in Rome for help 1095, Council of Clermont calls for a crusade to recapture Jerusalem
1076 Seljuk Turks captured Jerusalem and began to restrict access of Christian pilgrims to the holy places. 1095 Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus, threatened by Muslim advances towards Constantinople, appealed to the pope for help against the Seljuk Turks. Pope Urban II proclaimed a holy war. 1096–99 Motivated by occupation of Anatolia and Jerusalem by Seljuk Turks. 1096–99 First Crusade, led by Baldwin of Boulogne, Godfrey of Bouillon, and Peter the Hermit. Motivated by occupation of Anatolia and Jerusalem by Seljuk Turks. 1099 Capture of Jerusalem by the crusaders, accompanied by looting and massacre. A number of small crusader states established on the Syrian coast. 1147–49 failed to capture Damascus and Edessa. 1147–49 Second Crusade, led by Louis VII of France and Emperor Conrad III, failed to capture Damascus and Edessa.
1187 Jerusalem seized by Saladin, sultan of Egypt and Syria and leader of the Muslims against the crusaders. 1189–92 led by Philip II Augustus of France and Richard I the Lion-Heart of England 1189–92 Third Crusade, led by Philip II Augustus of France and Richard I the Lion-Heart of England, failed to recapture Jerusalem. 1202–04 was diverted by its Venetian financial backers to sack and divide Constantinople. 1202–04 Fourth Crusade, led by William of Montferrata and Baldwin of Hainault. Originally intended to recover the holy places, it was diverted by its Venetian financial backers to sack and divide Constantinople. 1212 Children's Crusade. Thousands of children crossed Europe on their way to Palestine but many were sold into slavery in Marseille, or died of disease and hunger. 1218–21 Fifth Crusade, led by King Andrew of Hungary, Cardinal Pelagius, King John of Jerusalem, and King Hugh of Cyprus. Captured and then lost Damietta, Egypt.
1228–29 Sixth Crusade, led by the Holy Roman emperor Frederick II. Jerusalem recovered by negotiation with the sultan of Egypt. 1244 Jerusalem finally lost, to remain in Turkish hands until liberated by the British general Allenby in 1917. 1249–54 Seventh Crusade led by Louis IX of France. 1270–72 Eighth Crusade, also led by Louis IX of France. 1291 Acre, the last Christian fortress in Syria, fell to the Turks.
Muslims controlled the Holy Land and threatened Constantinople Byzantine Emperor calls for help Pope appeals to Christian knights knight feel religious zeal and want land, riches, and adventure Italian cities desire commercial power
Byzantine Empire is weakened Pope’s power declines power of feudal nobles weakened kings become stronger religious intolerance grows Muslims distrust Christians Italian cities expand trade and grow rich trade grows between Europe and Asia Europeans adopt Muslim technology
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