Presentation on theme: "The Byzantine Empire and the Crusades. Explain the reign of Justinian Anaulze the changes from Eastern Roman Empire to Byzantine Empire Explain."— Presentation transcript:
Explain the reign of Justinian Anaulze the changes from Eastern Roman Empire to Byzantine Empire Explain life in Constantinople Explain the problems of the Byzantine Empire Analyze the crusades
Western Roman Empire- Germanic Tribes, Eastern Roman Empire- continued. Justinian became Eastern Roman Emperor in 527 and wanted to reestablish the whole Empire. By 522 his empire included Italy, part of Spain, North Africa, Asia Minor, Palestine, and Syria. Most important contribution was his codification of Roman Law, called The Body of Civil Law.
Justinians empire had many problems. too much territory away from Constantinople, empty treasury population decline, and frontier threats. Most serious challenge- rise of Islam. Smaller Eastern Roman Empire called the Byzantine Empire emerged and lasted until 1453.
Both Greek and Christian State. Greek replaced Latin as the official language. Christian church of the Byzantine empire came to be known as the Eastern Orthodox Church. Emperor was head of the church, known s the Patriarch.
Up until the 12 th century, Constantinople was medieval Europe’s trading center. East v. West crossover Justinian spent a great deal of time on public works programs: Roads, bridges, walls, public baths, law courts, schools, churches, and underground reservoirs. Greatest Achievement: Hagia Sophia
Byzantine empire recovered and even expanded through a new dynasty of emperors called the Macedonians (867-1081) Expanded from Bulgaria to the Balkans Macedonian dynasty of the 10 th and 11 th century restored power, but bad rulers soon destroyed most of the advances.
Problems with the Church: Eastern Orthodox faith refused to accept pope’s claim that he was the sole head of the Christian faith. 1054- Pope Leo IX and Patriarch Michael Cerularius excommunicated one another, beginning a schism. Challenge from the Seljuk Turks, which resulted in emperor Alexius I turning to Europe for military aid, resulting in the Crusades.
Military expeditions to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims. Pope Urban saw Alexius I call for help as a change to rally warriors for the liberation of Jerusalem and the Holy Land (Palestine) from the infidels or unbelievers- the Muslims living in the area. Western Europeans, particularly the French, formed the first crusading armies. Different motivating factors for Knights
Reached Jerusalem in June 1099. Holy City taken, massacre of the inhabitants. Crusaders depended on Italian cities for supplies from Europe. Genoa, Pisa and Venice prospered.
Fall of a Latin Kingdom in 1140 led to a call for a Second Crusade, especially from Bernard of Clairvaux. Second crusade was a failure. In 1187 Jerusalem fell to the Muslim forces under Saladin.
Fall under Saladin led to a Third Crusade led by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany; Richard I (Richard the Lionhearted) of England; and Philip II Augustus of France. Frederick drowned, England and France could not move inland, Philip went home, Richard negotiated with Saladin.
6 years after Saladin died (1193) Pope Innocent III started the 4 th Crusade. Fight over the Byzantine throne, Byzantine army did not recapture Constantinople until 1261. Germany 1212- Nicholas of Cologne started “children’s crusade”
Historians disagree on the crusades effect on European civilization. Benefited port cities in Italy. First attack on Jews Political impact- break down of feudalism Emergence of Portugal, Spain, England and France as the strongest European states.