Presentation on theme: "Aim: Were the Crusades one of history’s “successful failures”?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Aim: Were the Crusades one of history’s “successful failures”? Do Now: Answer the following questions:(1) What makes something a “successful failure”?(2) What is an example of a “successful failure”?
2 The CrusadesThe Crusades, or “holy wars” were military campaigns sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church in the High Middle Ages, and Late Middle Ages. In 1095, Pope Urban II proclaimed the First Crusade with the goal of restoring Christian access to holy places in and near Jerusalem.Jerusalem was important to Christians because, according to Gospel, it was where Jesus Christ had preached, and healed people. It was where he had risen to power, was arrested, tried, convicted, and crucified.Jerusalem was important to Muslims because, according to the Qur’an, it was where Muhammad ascended into heaven and was given the 5 pillars of Islam from Allah.
3 Goals of the CrusadesThe Crusades had social, economic, and political goals, as well as religious motives. Muslims controlled Palestine (the Holy Land) and threatened Constantinople, the Byzantine capital, and home of the Eastern Orthodox Church.The Byzantine emperor in Constantinople appealed to Christians to stop Muslim attacks.The pope wanted to reclaim Palestine and reunite Christendom, which had split into Eastern and Western branches in 1054.
4 Goals of the Crusades (continued) Kings and the Church both saw the Crusades as an opportunity to get rid of quarrelsome knights who fought each other, and threatened the peace of the kingdoms, as well as Church property.Other participants included younger sons who did not stand to inherit their father’s property. They were looking for land, and a position in society. Some were just looking for adventure.
6 The CrusadesThe First Crusade ( ) – Captured the land from Edessa to Jerusalem, but was vulnerable to Muslim counterattack. In 1144, the Turks recapture Edessa.The Second Crusade ( ) – To recapture Edessa. It failed. In 1187, Kurdish warrior and Muslim leader, Saladin, captures Jerusalem.The Third Crusade ( ) – To recapture Jerusalem, was led by three of Europe’s most powerful monarchs. They were Philip II (Augustus) of France, Frederick I (Barbarosa) of Germany, and Richard the Lion-Hearted of England. The alliance fell apart before attacks got underway, and Richard went at it alone. He and Saladin battled to a truce in 1192.
7 Terms of the Truce Jerusalem remained under Muslim control. Saladin promised that unarmed Christian pilgrims could freely visit the city’s holy places.
8 The Fourth CrusadeIn 1204, the Fourth Crusade recapture Jerusalem failed. Instead, they ended up looting the city of Constantinople.
9 Astronomy, Art, Math, Science, and Literature Al-jabr
10 Compare the routes of the Crusades with Trade routes
11 Affects of the Crusades (Trade - economic)Europeans were exposed to Muslim technology, education, and luxury goods. This led to cultural diffusion.European merchants who lived and traded in Crusader states expanded trade between Europe and Southwest Asia. Spices, fruits, and cloth were imported from Southwest Asia. Trade benefited both Christians and Muslims.
12 Affects of Crusades (economic & social) Thousands of other Europeans also died. This greatly reduced the size of the European workforce, and created a demand for labor.The increased demand for labor, in concert with the growth of trade, led more people to leave the manor for towns and cities, in order to make more money. This further weakened the feudal system.
13 Affects of the Crusades (social & political)Thousands of knights died in battle, and did not return home to the manor. As a result, feudal nobility weakened.This allowed kings to increase their power, breaking down the feudal system.
14 Affects of the Crusades (political)The failure of later Crusades lessened the power of the Pope. The fall of Constantinople weakened the Byzantine Empire.For Muslims, the intolerance and prejudice displayed by Christians in the Holy Land left behind a legacy of bitterness and hatred.
17 The ReconquistaThe Reconquista was a long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain.By the late 1400s, the Muslims held only the tiny kingdom of Granada. In 1492, Granada finally fell to the Christian army of Ferdinand and Isabella, the Spanish monarchs.To unify Spain under Christianity, and to increase their power, Ferdinand and Isabella used the Inquisition to ensure that Muslims and Jews who had converted to Christianity were not, in fact, heretics.
18 The Spanish Inquisition What can you tell about the Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Spain, based on it’s official seal?
19 The Spanish Inquisition The inquisition was a court held by the Church to suppress heresy. Heretics were people whose religious beliefs differed from the teaching of the Church.Thousands of Jews and Muslims were forced to submit to the inquisitions, where they were often questioned for weeks …