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Middle Ages 500-1500 A.D. Crusades (Holy Wars).

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Presentation on theme: "Middle Ages 500-1500 A.D. Crusades (Holy Wars)."— Presentation transcript:

1 Middle Ages A.D. Crusades (Holy Wars)

2 Fight against Islam Battle of Tours Crushing Muslim ideas in Europe
Re-conquering Spain Saving the Holy Land (Crusades)

3 Crusades (Holy Wars) Last 200 years (many different crusades)
Europeans have contact with outside world emerge from isolationism Until Crusades, Europeans & nobles were fighting against each other for territory, wealth & power.

4 Crusades (Holy Wars) Jerusalem Battle of Tours in 732
under Muslim control since 700s Battle of Tours in 732 Treaty signed by Charles Martel and Muslims Christians could pilgrimage to Holy Land

5 Crusades (Holy Wars) 1096 Byzantine Emperor (Alexius I) asked Pope (Urban II) for help fighting Muslims Muslim Turks invaded Byzantine empire took control of Holy Land attacked Christian pilgrims Pope agrees to help Byzantine Emperor and Pope longtime rivals.

6 Crusades (Holy Wars) Pope calls Christians to fight “God wills it!”
promised remission of sins wanted increased power wanted knights to fight Muslims instead of each other Pope says God is on our side.

7 Crusades (Holy Wars) Thousands of Europeans respond knights
hoped to win wealth and land adventure Knights were war machines. King and nobles were having trouble controlling knights. King also wanted knights out of Europe.


9 Crusades (Holy Wars) 1st Crusade (1096-1099)
Christians battled Muslims for control of lands in Middle East only crusade close to achieving goal long, bloody campaign Christian knights captured Jerusalem in 1099 then massacred Muslims & Jews Knights – war machines.

10 Crusades (Holy Wars) Crusader states Muslims kept attacking
Edessa Antioch Jerusalem Tripoli Muslims kept attacking Crusaders divided captured lands into 4 states, or kingdoms. Crusades were over when Tripoli fell.

11 Crusades (Holy Wars) 2nd Crusade 3rd Crusade
Saladin, Sultan of Egypt, recaptured Jerusalem in 1187 3rd Crusade Richard I and Europeans failed to recapture Jerusalem Saladin reopened Jerusalem to Christian pilgrims After negotiations, Saladin reopened Jerusalem to Christian pilgrims. Richard the Lion-Heart – reigned

12 Crusades (Holy Wars) 4th Crusade
crusaders raid Constantinople (Byzantine capital) steal wealth kill Muslims, Christians, and Jews (Christians fight Christians)

13 Crusades (Holy Wars) Later Crusaders
complete failures military disasters Muslims took control of last of crusader states massacred defeated Christians As in Jerusalem 200 years earlier, victors massacred defeated enemies.

14 Crusades (Holy Wars) Consequences 1. Languages in Europe altered
now have Islamic words 2. New products enter Europe silks and spices Europeans interested in trade 3. Center of commerce changed for all of Europe Northern Italian cities won crusades Venice, Genoa, Florence became wealthy and controlled trade Europeans get interested in trade when they see that Muslims were: highly advanced in science/technology have maintained the knowledge of the Eastern Roman Empire have maintained trade with India in luxury goods such as silk and spices

15 Result of Crusades Europeans get interested in trade with Muslims:
Muslims are: highly advanced in science and technology maintained knowledge of Eastern Roman Empire maintained trade with India in luxury goods Muslims had Greek & Roman science and technology.

16 Crusades (Holy Wars) Consequences 4. System of commerce changed
bills of credit, checking, banking 5. Nobility of Europe is weakened power of nobles declined many died, including kings manors left with no leaders or power authority 6. King was great winner power of king increased

17 Crusades (Holy Wars) Consequences
7. Tremendous increase in knowledge and interest in geography Western Europeans learned world was much larger than ever imagined 8. Pope’s power increased, then weakened late 1200s, heightened power of pope weakened when Christian knights were defeated

18 Reconquest in Spain Muslims conquered most of Spain in 700s
Christian warriors battled Muslims for 500 years campaign to drive Muslims out and recover Spain “Reconquista” or “Reconquest” Crusading spirit continued long after European defeat.

19 Reconquest in Spain Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469 Their combined forces completed Reconquest of Spain in 1492

20 Spanish Inquisition Religious toleration under Muslim rule
Queen Isabella wanted religious unity ended policy of toleration The Inquisition Church court to convert or punish heretics brutal crusade against Muslims and Jews (those refusing to convert often burned at stake) Religious unity achieved. More than 150,000 flee Spain skilled, educated people who had contributed much to Spain’s economy and culture





25 Result of Crusades By 1400s, a desire to trade directly with China and India led Europeans to a new age of exploration. Europeans had expected to win Crusades God was on their side Big surprise -- Europeans lose leads to breakdown of Church.

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