2Fight against Islam Battle of Tours Crushing Muslim ideas in Europe Re-conquering SpainSaving the Holy Land (Crusades)
3Crusades (Holy Wars) Last 200 years (many different crusades) Europeans have contact with outside worldemerge from isolationismUntil Crusades, Europeans & nobles were fighting against each other for territory, wealth & power.
4Crusades (Holy Wars) Jerusalem Battle of Tours in 732 under Muslim control since 700sBattle of Tours in 732Treaty signed by Charles Martel and MuslimsChristians could pilgrimage to Holy Land
5Crusades (Holy Wars)1096 Byzantine Emperor (Alexius I) asked Pope (Urban II) for help fighting MuslimsMuslim Turks invaded Byzantine empiretook control of Holy Landattacked Christian pilgrimsPope agrees to helpByzantine Emperor and Pope longtime rivals.
6Crusades (Holy Wars) Pope calls Christians to fight “God wills it!” promised remission of sinswanted increased powerwanted knights to fight Muslims instead of each otherPope says God is on our side.
7Crusades (Holy Wars) Thousands of Europeans respond knights hoped to win wealth and landadventureKnights were war machines.King and nobles were having trouble controlling knights.King also wanted knights out of Europe.
9Crusades (Holy Wars) 1st Crusade (1096-1099) Christians battled Muslims for control of lands in Middle Eastonly crusade close to achieving goallong, bloody campaignChristian knights captured Jerusalem in 1099then massacred Muslims & JewsKnights – war machines.
10Crusades (Holy Wars) Crusader states Muslims kept attacking EdessaAntiochJerusalemTripoliMuslims kept attackingCrusaders divided captured lands into 4 states, or kingdoms.Crusades were over when Tripoli fell.
11Crusades (Holy Wars) 2nd Crusade 3rd Crusade Saladin, Sultan of Egypt, recaptured Jerusalem in 11873rd CrusadeRichard I and Europeans failed to recapture JerusalemSaladin reopened Jerusalem to Christian pilgrimsAfter negotiations, Saladin reopened Jerusalem to Christian pilgrims.Richard the Lion-Heart – reigned
13Crusades (Holy Wars) Later Crusaders complete failuresmilitary disastersMuslims took control of last of crusader statesmassacred defeated ChristiansAs in Jerusalem 200 years earlier, victors massacred defeated enemies.
14Crusades (Holy Wars) Consequences 1. Languages in Europe altered now have Islamic words2. New products enter Europesilks and spicesEuropeans interested in trade3. Center of commerce changed for all ofEuropeNorthern Italian cities won crusadesVenice, Genoa, Florence became wealthy and controlled tradeEuropeans get interested in trade when they see that Muslims were:highly advanced in science/technologyhave maintained the knowledge of the Eastern Roman Empirehave maintained trade with India in luxury goods such as silk and spices
15Result of Crusades Europeans get interested in trade with Muslims: Muslims are:highly advanced in science and technologymaintained knowledge of Eastern Roman Empiremaintained trade with India in luxury goodsMuslims had Greek & Roman science and technology.
16Crusades (Holy Wars) Consequences 4. System of commerce changed bills of credit, checking, banking5. Nobility of Europe is weakenedpower of nobles declinedmany died, including kingsmanors left with no leaders or power authority6. King was great winnerpower of king increased
17Crusades (Holy Wars) Consequences 7. Tremendous increase in knowledge andinterest in geographyWestern Europeans learned world was much larger than ever imagined8. Pope’s power increased, then weakenedlate 1200s, heightened power of popeweakened when Christian knights were defeated
18Reconquest in Spain Muslims conquered most of Spain in 700s Christian warriors battled Muslims for 500 yearscampaign to drive Muslims out and recover Spain“Reconquista” or “Reconquest”Crusading spirit continued long after European defeat.
19Reconquest in SpainIsabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469Their combined forces completed Reconquest of Spain in 1492
20Spanish Inquisition Religious toleration under Muslim rule Queen Isabella wanted religious unityended policy of tolerationThe InquisitionChurch court to convert or punish hereticsbrutal crusade against Muslims and Jews(those refusing to convert often burned at stake)Religious unity achieved.More than 150,000 flee Spainskilled, educated people who had contributed much to Spain’seconomy and culture
25Result of CrusadesBy 1400s, a desire to trade directly with China and India led Europeans to a new age of exploration.Europeans had expected to win CrusadesGod was on their sideBig surprise -- Europeans loseleads to breakdown of Church.