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Middle Ages 500-1500 A.D. Crusades (Holy Wars). Fight against Islam Battle of Tours Crushing Muslim ideas in Europe Re-conquering Spain Saving the Holy.

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Presentation on theme: "Middle Ages 500-1500 A.D. Crusades (Holy Wars). Fight against Islam Battle of Tours Crushing Muslim ideas in Europe Re-conquering Spain Saving the Holy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Middle Ages A.D. Crusades (Holy Wars)

2 Fight against Islam Battle of Tours Crushing Muslim ideas in Europe Re-conquering Spain Saving the Holy Land (Crusades)

3 Crusades (Holy Wars) Last 200 years (many different crusades) Europeans have contact with outside world –emerge from isolationism

4 Crusades (Holy Wars) Jerusalem –under Muslim control since 700s Battle of Tours in 732 –Treaty signed by Charles Martel and Muslims Christians could pilgrimage to Holy Land

5 Crusades (Holy Wars) 1096 Byzantine Emperor (Alexius I) asked Pope (Urban II) for help fighting Muslims –Muslim Turks invaded Byzantine empire –took control of Holy Land –attacked Christian pilgrims Pope agrees to help

6 Crusades (Holy Wars) Pope calls Christians to fight –God wills it! –promised remission of sins –wanted increased power –wanted knights to fight Muslims instead of each other

7 Crusades (Holy Wars) Thousands of Europeans respond –knights hoped to win wealth and land adventure

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9 Crusades (Holy Wars) 1 st Crusade ( ) –Christians battled Muslims for control of lands in Middle East –only crusade close to achieving goal long, bloody campaign –Christian knights captured Jerusalem in 1099 then massacred Muslims & Jews

10 Crusades (Holy Wars) Crusader states –Edessa –Antioch –Jerusalem –Tripoli Muslims kept attacking

11 Crusades (Holy Wars) 2 nd Crusade –Saladin, Sultan of Egypt, recaptured Jerusalem in rd Crusade –Richard I and Europeans failed to recapture Jerusalem Saladin reopened Jerusalem to Christian pilgrims

12 Crusades (Holy Wars) 4 th Crusade –crusaders raid Constantinople (Byzantine capital) steal wealth kill Muslims, Christians, and Jews (Christians fight Christians)

13 Crusades (Holy Wars) Later Crusaders –complete failures –military disasters Muslims took control of last of crusader states –massacred defeated Christians

14 Crusades (Holy Wars) Consequences –1. Languages in Europe altered –now have Islamic words –2. New products enter Europe –silks and spices –Europeans interested in trade –3. Center of commerce changed for all of Europe –Northern Italian cities won crusades –Venice, Genoa, Florence became wealthy and controlled trade

15 Result of Crusades Europeans get interested in trade with Muslims: Muslims are: –highly advanced in science and technology –maintained knowledge of Eastern Roman Empire –maintained trade with India in luxury goods

16 Crusades (Holy Wars) Consequences –4. System of commerce changed –bills of credit, checking, banking –5. Nobility of Europe is weakened –power of nobles declined –many died, including kings –manors left with no leaders or power authority –6. King was great winner –power of king increased

17 Crusades (Holy Wars) Consequences –7. Tremendous increase in knowledge and interest in geography –Western Europeans learned world was much larger than ever imagined –8. Popes power increased, then weakened –late 1200s, heightened power of pope –weakened when Christian knights were defeated

18 Reconquest in Spain Muslims conquered most of Spain in 700s Christian warriors battled Muslims for 500 years –campaign to drive Muslims out and recover Spain –Reconquista or Reconquest

19 Reconquest in Spain Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469 Their combined forces completed Reconquest of Spain in 1492

20 Spanish Inquisition Religious toleration under Muslim rule Queen Isabella wanted religious unity –ended policy of toleration The Inquisition –Church court to convert or punish heretics brutal crusade against Muslims and Jews (those refusing to convert often burned at stake)

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25 Result of Crusades By 1400s, a desire to trade directly with China and India led Europeans to a new age of exploration.


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