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Reconstruction Triumph of Race, Politics, and Redeemers, 1863-1877.

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Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction Triumph of Race, Politics, and Redeemers, 1863-1877."— Presentation transcript:


2 Reconstruction Triumph of Race, Politics, and Redeemers, 1863-1877

3 Frederick Douglass, 1866 “The arm of the Federal government is long, but it is far too short to protect the rights of individuals in the interior of distant States. They must have the power to protect themselves, or they will go unprotected, in spite of all the laws the Federal government can put upon the national statute-book.”

4 Reconstruction During The War Reconstruction: rebuilding/reunifying the South Lincoln begins process – Emancipation Proclamation –10% Plan Goal was an easy peace to shorten war

5 10 Percent Plan 10 percent of S voters in 1860 take an oath of allegiance to the U.S. States vote to end slavery All but a few Confederate leaders and military leaders able to hold office No African American participation

6 Lincoln’s Second Inaugural “With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan--to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.”

7 Who Should Control Reconstruction—Congress or President? Lincoln and Congress have different views Respect for Lincoln may have overridden Assassination of Lincoln left question unresolved when Johnson becomes president

8 Wade-Davis Bill Majority of southern voters take an oath of allegiance. Southern states repudiate war debts No one who supported the Confederacy could vote or hold office End slavery but no provision for black voters Pocket vetoed by President Lincoln

9 Thirteenth Amendment “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime where of the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction…”

10 Freedman’s Bureau “Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Land” - (Freedmen's Bureau) established in 1865 - Supervised relief and educational activities - Issued rations, clothing and medicine - Distributed confiscated lands or property in CSA - Built schools for freedmen - Many become Southern black colleges - Future uncertain when Lincoln is assassinated

11 Freedman’s Bureau Schools

12 Andrew Johnson Rags to Riches Story “Treason must be made odious” Initially a darling of Radical Republicans Reconstruction Plan (Proclamation of Amnesty—May 1865) similar to Lincoln’s Quickly the real stripes begin to shine through and opposition rises

13 Andrew Johnson

14 Johnson’s Restoration Plan Excluded voters worth more than $20,000 Gave pardons to excluded individuals Restored property rights to white land owners States must ratify 13 th Amendment Recommended limited suffrage for black voters

15 Radical Republicans: Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner, Ben Wade

16 Congressional Reconstruction Joint Committee on Reconstruction set up States must ratify 14 th Amendment –black citizenship –Only voters who qualified under the 14 th Amendment could vote States must ratify 15 th Amendment = Black male voting rights. No women could vote. Military Reconstruction Act, 1867

17 South Doesn’t Get It Elect ex-CSA leaders to Congress, including Alexander Stephens Institute Black Codes Millions of poor homeless blacks Race Riots Result –Many poor “white trash” southerners –Still, feelings of racial superiority Johnson vetoes extension of Freedmen’s Bureau

18 Radicals Respond Fail to override Johnson’s Veto of Freedman’s Bureau Overrode Johnson’s Veto of Civil Rights Act of 1866 Congress creates a new Freedman’s Bureau Congress passes and sends 14 th Amendment to States –2/3 of states ratify by 1868 (condition of re-entry into Union) Radicals insist on Civil Rights for former slaves Radicals want a federal enforcement mechanism –Military government to ensure African Americans their rights

19 Radicals on a Roll—March 2, 1867 3 Key laws passed targeting the President Military Reconstruction Act Command of the Army Act Tenure of Office Act

20 Military Reconstruction Act - 1867 Divided South into Military District S States would write new constitutions w/ Universal Adult Male Suffrage S States would ratify 14 th amendment Army given power to register voters and disqualify “disloyal persons” from voting


22 Johnson Strikes Back Johnson is commander in chief Orders army NOT to occupy the South Secretary of War Edwin Stanton reverses order Johnson threatens to fire Stanton Congress passes Command of the Army Act –Temporarily revokes President’s status as CinC Congress passes Tenure in Office Act –Temporarily revokes President’s hire/fire power

23 Johnson Impeached Johnson fires Sec of War Edwin Stanton –Stanton had ordered the Army to the South –Johnson has now violated federal law (Tenure in Office Act) Johnson orders army NOT to occupy South –Johnson had been denied Commander in Chief status –Johnson has now exceeded his legal powers (Command of the Army Act) Congress introduces Articles of Impeachment

24 The Impeachment Process "the President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United States shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors." Three-part process 1: Impeachment: an accusation of violating the law 2: Trial: Senate hears evidence that law a was violated 3: Conviction: Senate votes plurality to convict/acquit

25 The Trial Radical Republicans move to impeach, articles pass Trial held, evidence presented: incontrovertible Vote to remove was 35 to 18, one shy of 2/3 majority Radicals don’t need to remove Johnson from office –By the time of impeachment trial in 1868 Johnson no threat –Election year: Johnson will be lame duck and slip into oblivion

26 South Readmitted By 1870, all Southern states were readmitted Some had to ratify 15 th amendment too Reconstruction Constitutions were most liberal in history of Southern States. Unfortunately, most rewrote these Constitutions after their readmission to the Union

27 Major Achievements of Reconstruction 13 th Amendment –End to racially based slavery 14 th Amendment –Full rights as citizens (property ownership, etc) 15 th Amendment –Right to vote may not be based on race/ethnicity African American Participation in Public Life Readmission of Southern States



30 Hiram Revels Two U.S. Senators from Mississippi Blanche Bruce

31 Failures of Reconstruction Southern whites were violently opposed to black rights; many in north were indifferent Rise of KKK: Nathan Bedford Forrest –Where army was present, KKK leaders were apprehended and imprisoned Carpetbaggers from N come for cheap land Scalawags are Southerners aiding Reconstruction Land Reform –Blacks (and poor whites) left to sharecropping Jim Crow, grandfather clauses, literacy tests

32 Nathan Bedford Forrest and the KKK

33 Sharecropping

34 “Boy, You ain’t a votin’ here”!


36 Grant Presidency Did attempt to enforce Reconstruction Presidency clouded by scandals “Era of Good Stealings” Republican party divided between Stalwart and Liberal Republicans—little energy left to devote to Reconstruction.

37 President Grant

38 1876 Presidential Election Rutherford B Hayes is the Republican –Civil War General –Harvard lawyer, governor of OH Samuel Tilden is the Democrat –NY District Attorney Hayes hurt by Grant scandals Democrats still haven’t recovered from “treason” Very close election


40 Compromise of 1877 Tilden needs 1 state to win: SC, FL, LA Congressional committee investigates Deal made in “smoke-filled room” –Wormsley Hotel Conference –Southerner named to cabinet –US Army withdrawn from South –Southern Pacific Railway funded by Congress –Federal funds to bring industry to the South South is “redeemed” – blacks are abandoned

41 Unto that Power he doth belong- Which only doeth Right, while ever willing Wrong. (-Goethe) (Hayes courts the South while the Devil looks on with an evil smile…)

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