Political re-entry of formerly rebellious states Economic devastation of the South Education and support of freedmen
Second Inaugural Address ◦ Sought not to blame, but rather heal ◦ “With Malice toward none, with charity for all…” Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction Plan (aka 10% Plan) ◦ Pardon all Confederates who took loyalty oath Exceptions ◦ If 10% of voters took the oath, statehood would be re- established ◦ Major goals: heal, strengthen Republican Party in the South ◦ AK, LA, TN, VA accepted under these terms
Supported: ◦ Abolition ◦ Destroy power of slaveholders ◦ Full citizenship and suffrage to African Americans Included: Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner Opposed 10% Plan
Stipulations: Congress Responsible for reconstruction Military governors to rule Southern states Majority of citizens required to take loyalty oath Attitude: South should be treated as conquered territory Lincoln uses Pocket Veto, Congress threatens Lincoln to stick to Executive duties
AL, FL, GA, MS, NC, SC, TX could be readmitted if ◦ Declared secession illegal ◦ Swore allegiance to the Union ◦ Ratified the 13th Amendment ◦ Excluded confederate leaders and wealthy Southern landowners to take oath without presidential permission to break their power. Pardoned 13,000 Confederates Felt Blacks should not gain right to vote Some Southern States did not fully comply (ie. MS, TX) and still allowed back. Viewed as too soft on the South by Radical Republicans, liked by many Southerners (states rights!!!)
Furious with Johnson’s plan, failed to address former slaves in 3 areas: land, voting rights, and protection under law. Refused to allow new Southern legislators in Congress = standstill Own Plan included: ◦ Enlarging Freedman’s Bureau ◦ Civil Rights Act 1866 ◦ 14 th Amendment
Congress voted to enlarge FREEDMAN’S BUREAU ◦ Assist former slaves and poor whites in South (food, clothing, hospitals, schools, etc.) ◦ Johnson Vetoed Civil Rights Act of 1866 ◦ defined citizenship ◦ outlawed discrimination on the basis of race (Black Codes) ◦ Johnson Vetoed 14th Amendment gave citizenship and full rights to all Americans, applied Bill of Rights to state governments to override Johnson’s Veto ◦ Johnson encouraged Southern states to reject it, not passed until 1868.
Passed by Radical and Moderates Did not recognize state gov. formed under Lincoln and Johnson, except TN. Proposal: ◦ South divided into five military districts ◦ Radical governments formed in Southern states composed of blacks, northern carpetbaggers, and Southern scalawags
As Johnson attempted to counter Radical moves, they planned his impeachment ◦ Tenure of Office Act - requiring Senate approval to remove Cabinet officials ◦ Johnson takes bait, removes Radical sympathizer Sec. of War ◦ Fell one vote short of convicting Johnson (35-19) Inability of Radicals to convict Johnson helped preserve the balance of power between the executive and legislative branches of the government
Former Confederate officials elected to public office when eligible Resentment of Freedmen's Bureau and occupying troops Passage of black codes limiting rights of blacks Violence rose with the creation of the Ku Klux Klan and other vigilante groups
Republican interest in Reconstruction waned as old abolitionists were replaced by Liberal Republicans with different interests. Compromise of 1877 settling disputed 1876 Hayes-Tilden election ◦ Removed all federal troops from the South ◦ Republican governments turned out of state offices ◦ Hayes elected as president though receiving fewer popular votes
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