2Questions What was Presidential Reconstruction? What was Congressional/Military reconstruction?What actions did Southerners take to avoid the effects of Reconstruction?
3Freedman's Bureau Created by Congress in 1865 Headed by General Oliver HowardPurpose: To help unskilled, uneducated, poverty-stricken ex-slaves survive.Provided food, medical care and education to both whites and blacks“40 acres and a mule”Southern violence against “carpetbaggers” and blacks was significant.Bureau expired in 1872Johnson repeatedly tried to kill it.
4Presidential reconstruction LINCOLN 1863 Lincoln gave his “10 percent” Reconstruction plan.States never left unionRecognition of state governments where 10% of the electorate from the 1860 election had taken a loyalty oath and acceptance of the 13th amendmentCongressional Republicans rejected the plan claiming it was too lenient.Wade-Davis Bill (1864)Required 50% of state’s voters in 1860 election take oath of allegiance and imposed stronger safeguards for emancipation than Lincoln's plan.“State Suicide theory”—Republicans believed Confederate states had forfeited all their rights by seceding from the Union.Lincoln vetoed the bill.
5Johnson’s Presidential Reconstruction Johnson recognized several of Lincoln’s 10% governments.Johnson Disenfranchised certain leading ConfederatesGranted many pardons for ex-Confederates.Pardons of planter aristocrats infuriated the Republican party.Called for special state conventions required torepeal ordinances of secession.Cancel all war debtsRatify the 13th amendmentBy 1865 most states had fulfilled Johnson's requirements.
6Actions of the South provoke strong reaction in the North Former confederate leaders were elected to high office and presented themselves to the capitol in December of 1865.Republicans feared that a restored South would be stronger in National Politics—why?Black codesPurpose: Laws in the South designed to restore pre-emancipation system of race relationsResults: Many blacks sank to level of indentured servitudeViolence against blacksKKK (1866)
7Congressional reconstruction In 1866 congressional election the Republicans captured a 2/3 majority in both houses: VETO PROOF CONGRESSLed by Republicans—Stevens, SumnerExtended the life of the Freedman’s BureauCivil Rights act of 1866Citizenship (excluding franchise) and struck at Black codes.14th AmendmentMilitary Reconstruction Act(1867)5 military districts headed by a military commanderCommander was responsible for seeing that each state under his command wrote a new constitution that provided for Black voting rights.New governments were to be formed by southerners who were loyal to the US—both black and white.Southerners who had supported the Confederacy were denied the right to vote.Military rule ended by 1870
8Impeachment of Johnson Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act in 1867 over Johnson’s veto.President couldn't remove senate-approved appointees without approval of the Senate.Purpose:Keep Sec of War Edwin Stanton in the cabinet who was secretly serving as a spy for the radicalsProvoke Johnson to break the lawJohnson fired Stanton believing the act was unconstitutional.Johnson is impeached for “high crimes and misdemeanors.”Johnson was one vote shy of being removed.
9Southern Reconstruction The South's new votersMost Black voters joined the Republican partyWhite Southerners who had not supported secession also supported the Republican party. Democrats called them Scalawags.CarpetbaggersAfrican Americans in office– about 1/5 of the South’s new officeholders were African Americans.The 15th amendment (ratified in 1870)—women not included The force (enforcement) acts– illegal to prevent another person from voting by bribery or scare tactics.Loopholes:Poll taxes, literacy tests, property requirements, grandfather clause were not addressed.
10Accomplishments of Reconstruction Blacks in high office14 Congressmen2 senatorsImproved public schoolsPublic work programs were establishedTax system streamlinedProperty rights were guaranteed to women
11The end of Reconstruction Compromise of 1877Voting rights for blacks would not be protected/enforced by the federal government until the Civil Rights movement of the 1960’s.
12Purchase of AlaskaSec. of State William Seward18677.2 million