Presentation on theme: "Congressional Reconstruction US History. Objectives B3d -Evaluate different Reconstruction plans and their social, economic, and political impact on the."— Presentation transcript:
Congressional Reconstruction US History
Objectives B3d -Evaluate different Reconstruction plans and their social, economic, and political impact on the South and the rest of the United States B3e- Analyze the immediate and long-term influences of Reconstruction on the lives of African Americans and U.S. society as a whole
I. Lincoln A.Ten Percent Plan/Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction 1.Reconciliation instead of punishment A.Amnesty to those who took an oath of alliegence to the Union B.Once 10% of population took oath a new state govt could be organized. 1. Exception – confederate govt officials and those who had left their posts during war
I. Lincoln B.Resistance 1.Radical Republicans A.Thaddeus Stevens and others did not want to reconcile with the South B.Wade Davis Bill – 1.Required an ironclad oath of alliegience 2.Punished former Confederate govt officials 3.Congress passed, was vetoed by Lincoln
I. Lincoln C.Freedman’s Bureau 1.Federal agency to help with crisis in the South 2.Feeding, clothing and supporting war refugees in the South. 3.Negotiated labor contracts 4.Worked to educate former slaves
II. Problems with Johnson A.Johnson’s Plan 1.Closely resembled Lincoln’s plan A.Pardon those who took oath B.Return their property C.Required ratification of 13 th amendment D.Southern voters had elected dozens of Confederate leaders to Congress
II. Problems with Johnson B. Black Codes 1.New Southern state legislatures passed laws known as black codes to limit the rights of African Americans in the South. 2.This leads to more Republicans joining the radicals and challenging Johnson.
II. Problems with Johnson C. Veto 1.Congress enacted two bills designed to help former slaves. Both of these bills were vetoed by President Johnson A.Civil Rights Act of 1866 – equal benefit of all laws B.Extending the life of the Freedmen’s Bureau
II. Problems with Johnson D. 14 th Amendment 1.Defines citizenship as anyone who is born or naturalized in the United States. 2.Prohibits any state from denying citizens due process or equal protection of the law. 3.Johnson adamantly spoke against the amendment
14 th Amendment
III. Congressional Reconstruction A.Military Reconstruction Act 1.Divided the confederacy into 5 districts 2.A Union general was placed in charge of each district. 3.New state constitutions had to give the right to vote to all male citizens. 4.States had to ratify the 14 th Amendment.
IV. Johnson’s Impeachment A.Congressional Power 1.In the election of 1866, Congress had won enough power to override any presidential veto. 2.Congress passed 2 new laws to prevent Johnson from interfering with reconstruction A.Command of the Army Act – required all orders to go through the headquarters of the army B.Tenure of Office Act – require the Senates approval of the removal of any government official
Military Reconstruction Act
III. Johnson’s Impeachment A.Congressional Power 3.Johnson fired a key government official without the permission of the Senate. 4.Congress immediately votes to impeach Johnson. 5.In May of 1868, Senate voted that Johnson was guilty of high crimes and misdemeanors, but was one vote short of impeachment.
IV. Election of 1868 A.Grant 1.Johnson remained quietly in office until the election of Republicans nominated Grant. Who was well in favor of African Americans in the South 3.Grant’s victory led to the expansion of reconstruction in the South and the passage of the 15 th Amendment. A. 15 th Amendment – the right to vote shall not be denied based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
V. Republican Rule in the South A.Carpetbaggers and Scalawags 1.Large number of Northerners traveled to the south. Southerners referred to these newcomers as Carpetbaggers. 2.Southerners who worked with Republicans and supported Reconstruction were called scalawags 3.Both were not welcome by former confederates.
V. Republican Rule in the South B.Reform 1.African Americans worked to improve their lives through education. 2.Many Southerners had a difficult time adjusting. Secret organizations were formed to undermine republican rule. A. Ku Klux Klan – rode in bands at night terrorizing teachers, carpetbaggers, freed men, and those who supported Republican rule
VI. Reconstruction Ends A.Grant Administration 1.Lack of political experience helped to divide the political party. 2.Series of scandals helped to damage his reputation. 3.Nation’s economic depression was deepening and the North grew tired of Reconstruction in the south.
VI. Reconstruction Ends B.Compromise of 1877 A.Disputed electoral votes eventually lead to a compromise B.Rutherford B. Hayes received disputed votes and becomes president and in return he agreed to removed federal troops form the South.
Compromise of 1877
VII. New South A.African Americans lose ground 1.South soon returned to the white mans rule 2.African American schools were closed due to lack of funding 3.Freed men were forced in labor contracts A. Sharecropping Tenant Farming 4.States passed Jim Crowe laws with further segregated blacks and whites A.Poll tax B.Literacy tests