2 ObjectivesB3d -Evaluate different Reconstruction plans and their social, economic, and political impact on the South and the rest of the United States B3e- Analyze the immediate and long-term influences of Reconstruction on the lives of African Americans and U.S. society as a whole
3 I. Lincoln Ten Percent Plan/Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction Reconciliation instead of punishmentAmnesty to those who took an oath of alliegence to the UnionOnce 10% of population took oath a new state govt could be organized.1. Exception – confederate govt officials and those who had left their posts during war
4 I. Lincoln Resistance Radical Republicans Thaddeus Stevens and others did not want to reconcile with the SouthWade Davis Bill –Required an ironclad oath of alliegiencePunished former Confederate govt officialsCongress passed, was vetoed by Lincoln
5 I. Lincoln Freedman’s Bureau Federal agency to help with crisis in the SouthFeeding, clothing and supporting war refugees in the South.Negotiated labor contractsWorked to educate former slaves
6 II. Problems with Johnson Johnson’s PlanClosely resembled Lincoln’s planPardon those who took oathReturn their propertyRequired ratification of 13th amendmentSouthern voters had elected dozens of Confederate leaders to Congress
7 II. Problems with Johnson B. Black CodesNew Southern state legislatures passed laws known as black codes to limit the rights of African Americans in the South.This leads to more Republicans joining the radicals and challenging Johnson.
8 II. Problems with Johnson C. VetoCongress enacted two bills designed to help former slaves. Both of these bills were vetoed by President JohnsonCivil Rights Act of 1866 – equal benefit of all lawsExtending the life of the Freedmen’s Bureau
10 II. Problems with Johnson D. 14th AmendmentDefines citizenship as anyone who is born or naturalized in the United States.Prohibits any state from denying citizens due process or equal protection of the law.Johnson adamantly spoke against the amendment
12 III. Congressional Reconstruction Military Reconstruction ActDivided the confederacy into 5 districtsA Union general was placed in charge of each district.New state constitutions had to give the right to vote to all male citizens.States had to ratify the 14th Amendment.
14 IV. Johnson’s Impeachment Congressional PowerIn the election of 1866, Congress had won enough power to override any presidential veto.Congress passed 2 new laws to prevent Johnson from interfering with reconstructionCommand of the Army Act – required all orders to go through the headquarters of the armyTenure of Office Act – require the Senates approval of the removal of any government official
16 III. Johnson’s Impeachment Congressional PowerJohnson fired a key government official without the permission of the Senate.Congress immediately votes to impeach Johnson.In May of 1868, Senate voted that Johnson was guilty of high crimes and misdemeanors, but was one vote short of impeachment.
18 IV. Election of 1868GrantJohnson remained quietly in office until the election of 1868.Republicans nominated Grant. Who was well in favor of African Americans in the SouthGrant’s victory led to the expansion of reconstruction in the South and the passage of the 15th Amendment.A. 15th Amendment – the right to vote shall not be denied based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
19 V. Republican Rule in the South Carpetbaggers and ScalawagsLarge number of Northerners traveled to the south. Southerners referred to these newcomers as Carpetbaggers.Southerners who worked with Republicans and supported Reconstruction were called scalawagsBoth were not welcome by former confederates.
21 V. Republican Rule in the South ReformAfrican Americans worked to improve their lives through education.Many Southerners had a difficult time adjusting. Secret organizations were formed to undermine republican rule.A. Ku Klux Klan – rode in bands at night terrorizing teachers, carpetbaggers, freed men, and those who supported Republican rule
23 VI. Reconstruction Ends Grant AdministrationLack of political experience helped to divide the political party.Series of scandals helped to damage his reputation.Nation’s economic depression was deepening and the North grew tired of Reconstruction in the south.
24 VI. Reconstruction Ends Compromise of 1877Disputed electoral votes eventually lead to a compromiseRutherford B. Hayes received disputed votes and becomes president and in return he agreed to removed federal troops form the South.
26 VII. New South African Americans lose ground South soon returned to the white mans ruleAfrican American schools were closed due to lack of fundingFreed men were forced in labor contractsA. Sharecropping Tenant FarmingStates passed Jim Crowe laws with further segregated blacks and whitesPoll taxLiteracy tests