Presentation on theme: " First: Recall what needs fixing/restructuring. Think Politically, Socially, and Economically Ask: ▪ How do we restore the Southern states back into."— Presentation transcript:
First: Recall what needs fixing/restructuring. Think Politically, Socially, and Economically Ask: ▪ How do we restore the Southern states back into the Union? Pardon? Oath? Who leads? ▪ South is in ruins (structurally) and their economy is deteriorating, how do we fix it? (pg. 356) ▪ 4 Million free slaves, now what? ▪ Agricultural System effected by slaves being freed. New System? People concerned with rebuilding their land and their lives. How do we help them?
Lincoln Johnson Congress
To Grant Amnesty, pardon, to most Southerners if they did what? If they took an oath of loyalty and accepted its proclamations concerning slavery. When could southern states make new state governments? 10 percent of state voters take oath Who would not receive amnesty from Lincoln’s plan? Members of Former conf. govt., officers of the conf. army, members of Congress, former federal judges, and military officers who had left their posts Congress didn’t accept Lincoln’s Plan
Johnson has a moderate plan like Lincoln’s Plan: Initiates Restoration Program while congress is in recess. Amnesty and return of property for former confederate citizens who’ve taken an oath of loyalty. ▪ Excludes: Rich Planter Elite- (Why?) ▪ High Ranking Confederates ▪ Those with property over $20,000 Could apply for pardons individually Required states to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment and reject all civil war debts
Restoration Program: Former confederate states followed Johnson’s terms ▪ Started forming new governments and electing people to congress ▪ Johnson granting thousands of pardons. Congress back in session ANGRY! – Why? Former confederate political and military leaders in congress Found unacceptable by manyRepublicans, who voted to reject these new members Black Codes- passed by southern state legislatures (pg. 360)
Moderate Republicans create Wade-Davis Bill. Requires majority of the adult white males in former Confederate state to take an oath of allegiance to the Union. ▪ Then the states could hold convention to create a new state government. ▪ Each state would have to abolish slavery, reject all debts the state had acquired as part of Confederacy, and deprive all former Confederate govt. officials and military officers the right to vote or hold office. Passed by Congress, but “pocket-vetoed” by Lincoln ▪ To harsh and counterproductive- “no persecution, no bloody work”
Congress Established Freedmen’s Bureau Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands ▪ Feeds and clothes war refugees with surplus army supplies ▪ Helped prevent mass starvation ▪ Union troops settled 40,000 African Americans on about ½ million acres of land in S.C. and Georgia ▪ Helped freed African Americans find work on plantations ▪ Negotiated Labor contracts ▪ Established courts dealing with grievances between planter and worker ▪ Congress rejected land confiscations- “forty acres and a mule” ▪ Worked to get formerly enslaved people an education ▪ Provided buildings for schools, paid teachers, established colleges for training African American teachers. What was the purpose of the Freedman’s Bureau? ▪ Help Freed African Americans get food, clothing, medical care, find work, and an education.
Angry with Johnson! Radical Republicans: 3 main goals Prevent leaders of the Confederacy from returning to power after the war. Make Republican Party a powerful institution in the South. Political equity for African Americans through voting rights. ▪ How would this help? ▪ 3/5ths Compromise-> slavery abolished-> more Southern seats in the House-> endangers Republican control of Congress How could congress protect their power? Find a way to protect African American Voting Rights
Congress/Radical Republicans Plan: How does congress protect African American Rights? ▪ Pass 14 th and 15 th Amendments New state constitutions required to guarantee voting rights Military rule protected voting rights for African Americans Empowered African Americans in government Supported African American’s education Military Reconstruction Act- What does this do? ▪ Split South into 5 districts
House and Senate Republicans What was the main goal of congress’ plan? ▪ Protect Rights of African Americans Congress upset about Black Codes Civil Rights Act of 1866-overrides Black Codes. What does it grant to African Americans? ▪ Citizenship to all persons born in the U.S. (not Native Americans) ▪ Allows African Americans to own property and be treated equally in court ▪ Able to sue those who violated the act
How did Congress secure the Civil Rights Act? Introduced 14 th Amendment- This would do what ? ▪ Citizenship to all born or naturalized in the U.S. ▪ No state could deprive life, liberty, or property “without due process of law” ▪ “Equal protection of the Laws” ▪ Increasingly supported by Southern moderates Johnson disagreed with Amendment ▪ Discouraged supporting the Radical Republicans 1866 congressional elections ▪ Republicans win 3 to 1 majority in congress ▪ Amendment Ratified by states in 1868
Congress worried Johnson wouldn’t enforce laws Trusted: ▪ Edwin M. Stanton-Secretary of war ▪ General Ulysses S. Grant- Head of Army Congress passes 2 Acts: ▪ Command of the Army Act ▪ Tenure of Office Act ▪ Johnson challenges and fires Stanton House of Representatives votes to impeach Johnson To charge with “high crimes and misdemeanors” in office. What grounds where they impeaching Johnson on? That he had broken the law by refusing to uphold the Tenure of Office Act
Senate put Johnson on trail. If 2/3rds guilty he would be removed ▪ Vote 35 to 19- ONE vote short. ->NOT impeached. Johnson remains in office but finished term quietly Ulysses S. Grant wins election Why did Grant win? ▪ States reorganizing governments only with military supervision ▪ Presence of Union troops enabled large numbers of African Americans to vote Won six Southern states and most Northern States ▪ Republicans kept large majorities in House and Senate
Congress now has a trusted president Desired to expand their Reconstruction Plan ▪ Passed 15 th Amendment (pg 363) ▪ Right to vote “shall not be denied…on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” How did Radical Reconstruction (congress’ plan) impact the South? Brought African Americans into politics Started changing Southern Society ▪ Many southern whites started to fight back against federal policies