Presentation on theme: "Reconstructing the Union Essential Question: Was Reconstruction a Success or a Failure?"— Presentation transcript:
Reconstructing the Union Essential Question: Was Reconstruction a Success or a Failure?
Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan Lincoln offered the South an easier route to restore the Union Offered amnesty to all Southerners who took an oath of loyalty to the Union When 10% of a state’s votes took the oath, the state could organize a new government Lincoln did not believe that the South should be punished for its treason. End the war “with malice toward none, with charity for all” -Abraham Lincoln, 1865
The Radical Republicans Respond The Radical Republicans had 3 goals: 1. Prevent Confederacy leaders from returning to power after the war 2. See the Republican Party rise to power in the South 3. Allow the federal government help African Americans achieve political equality by guaranteeing their right to vote in the South “Revolutionize Southern institutions, habits & manners” - Senator Charles Sumner, Massachusetts
Wade Davis Bill, 1864 Moderate Republicans were caught between President Lincoln and the Radicals. In the Summer of 1864, they introduced a bill as an alternative to Lincoln’s plan. Majority of males in Confederacy take a loyalty oath, then each state could hold constitutional conventions to create new state governments Each convention must do 3 things: 1. Abolish slavery 2. Reject Confederacy debt 3. Forbid former Confederate officers and officials from voting or holding office.
Johnson Takes Office Following Lincoln’s Assassination, Andrew Johnson, a Southern Democrat, became President. He offered his “restoration program” and immediately too action. 1. Pardoned all Confederate citizens who took the loyalty oath 2. Although he excluded former officers and officials, many of those men still were elected to public office. Congress refused to seat former Confederates in Congress.
Republicans Take Control In 1865, Republicans join forces to develop their own program. Civil Rights Act of 1866: granted citizenship to all born in US except Native Americans, granted right to own property & be treated equal in court. 14 th Amendment: prohibits government from taking away “life, liberty or property” without “due process. **Both acts were in response to Southern Black Codes which severely limited African American rights & created conditions similar to slavery.**
Military Reconstruction Act Reconstruction Act of 1867 The Act divided the South into 5 military districts. A Union general was in charge of each district Each state held new constitutional conventions where they were required to 1. Give the right to vote to all adult males, regardless of race 2. Ratify the 14 th amendment
Impeachment In order to restrict Johnson’s power to refuse to enforce the Act, Congress took harsh action against the President Congress passed the Army Act & Tenure of Office Act. Johnson had to send all Army orders through Army Headquarters and could not fire officials without Congress’s approval Johnson defied Congress by firing Secretary of War Edwin Stanton and was impeached. Johnson was not removed from his office and finished his term quietly