Presentation on theme: "Icebreaker ~ 1) What were 3 advantages for the North during the Civil War? 2) What were 2 disadvantages for the North during the C.W.? 3) What were 3 advantages."— Presentation transcript:
Icebreaker ~ 1) What were 3 advantages for the North during the Civil War? 2) What were 2 disadvantages for the North during the C.W.? 3) What were 3 advantages for the South during the C.W.? 4) What were 2 disadvantages for the South during the C.W.?
Reconstruction The period during in which the U.S. began to rebuild after the Civil War Also refers to the process the federal government used to readmit the defeated Confederate states to the Union.
Key Questions 1. How do we bring the South back into the Union? 2. How do we rebuild the South after its destruction during the war? 3. How do we integrate and protect newly- emancipated black freedmen? 4. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction?
Ten percent plan The government would pardon all Confederates except high ranking officials and those accused of crimes against prisoners of war. As soon as ten percent of those who had voted in 1860 took this oath of allegiance, a Confederate state could form a new state government.
Wanted to destroy the political power of former slaveholders. Most of all, they wanted African Americans to be given full citizenship and the right to vote.
John Wilkes Booth shoots and kills President Lincoln at Fords Theatre. Andrew Johnson becomes President
Wade-Davis Bill (1864) Required 50% of the number of 1860 voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegiance (swearing they had never voluntarily aided the rebellion ). Required a state constitutional convention before the election of state officials. Enacted specific safeguards of freedmen’s liberties. Senator Benjamin Wade (R-OH) Congressma n Henry W. Davis (R-MD)
13 th Amendment Ratified in December, ~ Abolished slavery Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Freedmen’s Bureau (1865) Assisted ex-slaves in the south Many former northern abolitionists risked their lives to help southern freedmen. Called “carpetbaggers” by white southern Democrats.
Scalawags were white Southerners who joined the Republican Party. Carpetbaggers were Northerners who moved to the South after the war. TO MAKE THAT $$$$$$$$$$$$$
Reconstruction Act of 1867 Act divided the former Confederate states into five military districts. The states were required to give African Americans the right to vote and ratify the fourteenth amendment in order to reenter the Union. Johnson vetoed Reconstruction Act of 1867
14 th Amendment Ratified in July, CITIZENSHIP * Provide a constitutional guarantee of the rights and security of freed people. * Insure against neo-Confederate political power. * Enshrine the national debt while repudiating that of the Confederacy.
15 th Amendment Ratified in The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote!
Jim Crow Laws = Segregation = Black Codes which were the former Slave Codes of 1860 Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896 makes this LEGAL & acceptagle (Separate but Equal) Things to restrict African American voting rights included the following: ◦ Poll Tax ◦ Literacy Test ◦ Grandfather Clause
First time they held office in local, state, and federal government. Hiram Revels was the first African American Senator. Gen. Sherman promised former slaves who followed his army 40 acres per family and the use of army mules.
Sharecropping Landowners divide their land and assigned each head of household a few acres, along with seed and tools.
Ku Klux Klan Southern vigilante group. Wanted to destroy the Republican party Throw out the Reconstruction governments. Prevent African Americans from exercising their political rights.
Panic of 1873 Series of bank failures that triggered a five year depression. Supreme Court began to undo some of the social and political changes the Radicals made.
In the Election of 1876, Democrat candidate Samuel Tilden won the popular vote but was one vote short of electoral victory. Southern Democrats in Congress agreed to accept Hayes if federal troops were withdrawn from the South.
Supreme Court decision requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine “separate but equal”