Lincoln’s plan for reconstruction 1862- encouraged freedpeople to leave - many object 12-8-63,Lincoln issues reconstruction plan - oath / 10% & state readmitted Why did this plan angered many republicans?
Lincoln’s plan for reconstruction (continue) Wade-Davis reconstruction bill - Lincoln vetoes bill - assassinated (4-14-65) before announcing new reconstruction policy
President Andrew Johnson (1865-1869) “Treason is a crime…traitors must not only be punished, but their social power must be destroyed.”
Andrew Johnson & Reconstruction Johnson as Lincoln’s running mate (1864) - democrat (TN) / supported Union Johnson as President - blanket amnesty What did Republicans believed Johnson wanted to restore?
Black Codes (1865) Black Codes enacted in state govt’s - rights plummeted for 4 million freed slaves - reduced freedmen to a condition close to slavery
Created by Congress 03/1865 - overseer in relation between former slaves & owners - ensure payment / distributed food - South’s economy & sharecropping Bureau helped ensure education for former slaves - What did this reduce for many freedmen?
Johnson’s heavy hand Vetoes on Congressional Legislation - bill to extend life of Freedman’s Bureau - Civil Rights bill- defined freedpeople as citizens w/ equal rights Congress in response - overrides vetoes - passed 14 th Amendment (1868) - prohibits states from denying any person equal protection of the laws (A8)
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson Tenure of Office Act (1867) - required Senate approval before the president could remove a cabinet member Johnson removed secretary of war Edwin Stanton (Feb 1868)
Impeachment (continue) Congressional response - House voted for impeachment (126-47) - long Senate trial favored Johnson Constitution: “Treason, bribery, & High Crimes” Real reason for impeachment Was Johnson removed from office?
Completion of Reconstruction Constitutional Conventions met in the South (1867-68) - ¾ of delegates were of Republican party - 30% were African American States must follow 14 th & 15 th amendment to be reinstated into Union (A12) - universal male suffrage / schools
Presidential Election of 1868 Ulysses Grant Grant Campaigned as War hero & anti- Johnson - What was Grant’s slogan? - denounced KKK in south - won African American votes Grant won electoral college 214-80
Nathan Bedford Forrest One of the South’s most highly regarded Confederate general founder of the?
Problems with the Klu Klux Klan Organized to suppress republican party - terrorize African Americans - burning crosses, schools & homes
Grant’s response to KKK Congressional response (1870-71) - 3 laws enforcing 14 & 15 th amend - KKK act - Grant goes after Klan 1. 3,000 indicted / 600 convicted Measures broke Klan’s back for the 1872 election Congress passed Civil Rights Act of 1875Civil Rights Act of 1875
The Grant Administration (1869-77) Presidency damaged by poor judgment & scandals (unwise appointments) - no political experience / very trustworthy - sec of war impeached for selling jobs Presidency branded as a failure
Retreat from reconstruction MS, LA, Fl, & NC remain republican Grant’s use of KKK act in La - “bayonet rule” - MS plan (p 458) - supreme court ruling (U.S. v. Reese) - declared CRA of 1875 unconstitutional Elections of 1875 /south goes democratic
Republican Rutherford Hayes elected president in 1877
End of Reconstruction Disputed election results President’s plans to end reconstruction - rebuild south & withdraw federal troops Compromise of 1877 - leave southern states to deal w/ problems - removal of fed troops / aid / appointment - ended reconstruction Highlights of reconstruction - restore union / ended slavery