2After the Civil War, the South was defeated militarily, devastated economically, and many were just trying to rebuild their lives.Reconstruction- rebuilding the nation after warCongress and the President had to decide how to reunite the nation – how to deal with former Confederates and former slaves and their admittance into the Union.The Beginning
3Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction Lincoln’s Plan – Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction.He wanted to reconcile with the South instead of punishing them.Lincoln offered to pardon all southerners who took the loyalty oath.When 10% of the voters had taken the oath, a new state government would be organized.Confederate government officials, military officers, judges and members of Congress would not be pardoned.Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction
4Radical Republicans did not want to reconcile with the South. These were led by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner.Radical Republicans
5Radical Republicans Cont. They had three goals:1. Prevent Confederate leaders from returning to power2. Wanted the Republican Party to be powerful in the South3. Wanted the federal govt. to help African Americans achieve political equality by guaranteeing the right to vote.Radical Republicans Cont.
6Moderates were caught in the middle of these plans and created; The Wade-Davis Bill (1864)- majority of adult white men in the Confederacy had to take an oath of allegiance before a new state govt. could be formed.Each state would have to abolish slavery, reject all Confederate debts and deny all former Confederate govt. officials and military officers the right to vote.Wade-Davis Bill
7Congress passed the Wade-Davis Bill, but Lincoln blocked it with a pocket veto. He did not want a harsh peace agreement with the South. He feared it would alienate southerners when the South was already devastated and thousands of freedmen were following Union troops seeking help.Wade-Davis Cont.
8March, 1865 – Freedmen’s Bureau was established to feed and clothe war refugees. It also helped former slaves find work and get educated.Freedman’s Bureau
11Johnson’s Plan for Recon Johnson’s plan – in the summer of 1865, with Congress in recess, Johnson began implementing his plan which resembled Lincoln’s.He would accept a loyalty oath from southerners, except for Confederate officers and officials. Southern states had to ratify the 13th Amendment to abolish slavery.Johnson’s Plan for Recon
12President Andrew Johnson's Plan Radical Republicans' Plan (Congress)To reenter the Union, states had to: - swear allegiance to the Union - ratify the 13th amendmentWas willing to pardon high-ranking Confederate officersFavored states' rights on issues such as giving African Americans the right to voteDid not support the Freedman's BureauTook a conciliatory approachSupported the Freedman's Bureau - Created schools - Created hospitals - Created Industrial Institutes - Created teacher-training centers - Distributed food and clothingSupported Civil Rights Act of 1866, which outlawed Black CodesPassage of 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments required to reenter UnionDivided the South into five military districtsSupported equal rights for African Americans
13By the time Congress returned in December, the process was well underway. Many were displeased that southern voters had elected many Confederate leaders to Congress.Southern states had also passed new laws, called black codes, to restrict the rights of freedmen. These included things like curfews, restrictions on property ownership and employment.Black Codes
14Congress formed a Joint Committee on Reconstruction to develop their own program. They proposed the 14th Amendment which granted citizenship to former slaves – this would guarantee property rights and provide “equal protection under the law”.14th Amendment
15Military Reconstruction Act 1867 – Congress passed the Military Reconstruction Act. This divided the former Confederacy into 5 districts.A Union general was placed in charge of each district to maintain peace and protection.Each state had to hold new constitutional conventions to design constitutions acceptable to Congress. They had to give the right to vote to all males and ratify the 14th Amendment.Military Reconstruction Act
17Offices created by the President Johnson had shown the willingness to veto bills passed by Congress. To avoid this, Congress passed the Command of the Army Act and the Tenure of Office Act.The Command of the Army Act required all orders from the president to go through General Grant first.Tenure of Office Act – required the Senate to approve the president’s removal of any govt. official that had been approved by the Senate.Offices created by the President
18Impeachment of Pres. Johnson Johnson retaliated by firing Secretary of State Stanton.Within a week, the House of Representatives voted to impeach Johnson.He was charged with “high crimes and misdemeanors”. He had broken the law when he refused to uphold the Tenure of Office Act.Johnson’s impeachment vote was one short of removing him from office.Impeachment of Pres. Johnson
1915th amendment and Grant Johnson did not run for re-election. U.S. Grant would be the next president.Congress passed the 15th Amendment – gave former slaves the right to vote.15th amendment and Grant
21Africans during Reconstruction Immediately after the war ended – during Reconstruction – African Americans were allowed to vote and some were elected to Congress and state offices.Africans during Reconstruction