Presentation on theme: "RECONSTRUCTION. The Beginning After the Civil War, the South was defeated militarily, devastated economically, and many were just trying to rebuild their."— Presentation transcript:
The Beginning After the Civil War, the South was defeated militarily, devastated economically, and many were just trying to rebuild their lives. Reconstruction- rebuilding the nation after war Congress and the President had to decide how to reunite the nation – how to deal with former Confederates and former slaves and their admittance into the Union.
Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction Lincoln’s Plan – Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction. He wanted to reconcile with the South instead of punishing them. Lincoln offered to pardon all southerners who took the loyalty oath. When 10% of the voters had taken the oath, a new state government would be organized. Confederate government officials, military officers, judges and members of Congress would not be pardoned.
Radical Republicans Radical Republicans did not want to reconcile with the South. These were led by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner.
Radical Republicans Cont. They had three goals: ◦1. Prevent Confederate leaders from returning to power ◦2. Wanted the Republican Party to be powerful in the South ◦3. Wanted the federal govt. to help African Americans achieve political equality by guaranteeing the right to vote.
Wade-Davis Bill Moderates were caught in the middle of these plans and created; The Wade-Davis Bill (1864)- majority of adult white men in the Confederacy had to take an oath of allegiance before a new state govt. could be formed. Each state would have to abolish slavery, reject all Confederate debts and deny all former Confederate govt. officials and military officers the right to vote.
Wade-Davis Cont. Congress passed the Wade-Davis Bill, but Lincoln blocked it with a pocket veto. He did not want a harsh peace agreement with the South. He feared it would alienate southerners when the South was already devastated and thousands of freedmen were following Union troops seeking help.
Freedman’s Bureau March, 1865 – Freedmen’s Bureau was established to feed and clothe war refugees. It also helped former slaves find work and get educated.
Johnson’s Plan for Recon Johnson’s plan – in the summer of 1865, with Congress in recess, Johnson began implementing his plan which resembled Lincoln’s. He would accept a loyalty oath from southerners, except for Confederate officers and officials. Southern states had to ratify the 13 th Amendment to abolish slavery.
President Andrew Johnson's Plan Radical Republicans' Plan (Congress) To reenter the Union, states had to: - swear allegiance to the Union - ratify the 13th amendment Was willing to pardon high- ranking Confederate officers Favored states' rights on issues such as giving African Americans the right to vote Did not support the Freedman's Bureau Took a conciliatory approach Supported the Freedman's Bureau - Created schools - Created hospitals - Created Industrial Institutes - Created teacher-training centers - Distributed food and clothing Supported Civil Rights Act of 1866, which outlawed Black Codes Passage of 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments required to reenter Union Divided the South into five military districts Supported equal rights for African Americans
Black Codes By the time Congress returned in December, the process was well underway. Many were displeased that southern voters had elected many Confederate leaders to Congress. Southern states had also passed new laws, called black codes, to restrict the rights of freedmen. These included things like curfews, restrictions on property ownership and employment.
14 th Amendment Congress formed a Joint Committee on Reconstruction to develop their own program. They proposed the 14 th Amendment which granted citizenship to former slaves – this would guarantee property rights and provide “equal protection under the law”.
Military Reconstruction Act 1867 – Congress passed the Military Reconstruction Act. This divided the former Confederacy into 5 districts. A Union general was placed in charge of each district to maintain peace and protection. Each state had to hold new constitutional conventions to design constitutions acceptable to Congress. They had to give the right to vote to all males and ratify the 14 th Amendment.
Military Reconstruction Act
Offices created by the President Johnson had shown the willingness to veto bills passed by Congress. To avoid this, Congress passed the Command of the Army Act and the Tenure of Office Act. The Command of the Army Act required all orders from the president to go through General Grant first. Tenure of Office Act – required the Senate to approve the president’s removal of any govt. official that had been approved by the Senate.
Impeachment of Pres. Johnson Johnson retaliated by firing Secretary of State Stanton. Within a week, the House of Representatives voted to impeach Johnson. He was charged with “high crimes and misdemeanors”. He had broken the law when he refused to uphold the Tenure of Office Act. Johnson’s impeachment vote was one short of removing him from office.
15 th amendment and Grant Johnson did not run for re-election. U.S. Grant would be the next president. Congress passed the 15 th Amendment – gave former slaves the right to vote.
Africans during Reconstruction Immediately after the war ended – during Reconstruction – African Americans were allowed to vote and some were elected to Congress and state offices.