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Era following the Civil War when the U.S. government: Brought Southern states back into the Union Ended slavery and attempted to protect freedmen Rebuilt.

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Presentation on theme: "Era following the Civil War when the U.S. government: Brought Southern states back into the Union Ended slavery and attempted to protect freedmen Rebuilt."— Presentation transcript:

1 Era following the Civil War when the U.S. government: Brought Southern states back into the Union Ended slavery and attempted to protect freedmen Rebuilt the nation

2 Reconstruction occurred in two phases: Presidential Reconstruction Lenient to allow Southern states to quickly rejoin Union Initiated by Lincoln; Carried out by Johnson Congressional Reconstruction Directed by Radical Republicans – wanted stricter plan Keep Confederate leaders from regaining power in the South Protect rights of freedmen (former slaves)

3 LINCOLN’S PLAN  10% Plan - Quick and Easy  Former Confederate states could re-enter Union when: ▪ 10% of state’s population had to take oath of allegiance to U.S. ▪ Recognize freedom of former slaves ANDREW JOHNSON’S PLAN  Swear allegiance to the Union  Hold state constitutional conventions - set up state govt  Cancel secession & ratify (approve) the 13 th Amendment  States could then hold elections

4  Rejected President’s plan  Did nothing to protect former slaves or keep Confederate leaders from re-gaining power in the South  Wanted 50% to swear oath of allegiance  Former slaves should receive full citizenship and voting rights  Thaddeus Stevens (Penn.)  Charles Sumner (Mass.)  Wanted Congress to oversee Reconstruction  Majority of state’s population should have to swear allegiance for admittance to the Union **More difficult process of mending Union**

5  Created by Congress in 1865  Assisted former slaves and poor whites in transition from society based on slavery to one allowing freedom  Run by the war department  Distributed clothing & food  Set up 40 hospitals  Set up 4,000 schools

6  Declared that African Americans were citizens  Denied states’ right to restrict citizens rights to:  Testify in court against whites  Make contracts  Hold property Johnson vetoed law Congress overrides with 2/3

7  White southerners reestablished civil authority  Restrictive laws known as “black codes”  Many former slaves had to sign yearly labor contracts  Former slaves could NOT:  Carry weapons  Serve on juries  Testify against whites  Marry whites  Own land (Only in some states)

8  Congress pushed through Reconstruction Acts beginning in 1867  Southern states put under military rule  Southern states hold new constitutional conventions  African Americans allowed to vote - in the states  Equal rights for African Americans  Ratification of the 14 th Amendment (citizenship)


10 13 TH AMENDMENT  1865  “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude…shall exist in the United States” 14 TH AMENDMENT  1868  “all persons born or naturalized in the United States” are citizens 15 th Amendment 1870 No one can be kept from voting because of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”

11  Tenure of Office Act (1867)  President couldn’t fire cabinet members  Johnson thought this act was unconstitutional ▪ Fires Secretary of War – Edwin Stanton ▪ Law was later declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court  House of Representatives charges him  Senate tries the case  Required 2/3 vote to remove from office  Vote was 35 to 19 – one vote short of 2/3 needed for removal from office

12  Civil War hero won presidency  Worked with Congress to reconstruct the South  By 1868, most Confederate states had been re- admitted to the Union under Congressional Reconstruction Because of Congressional Reconstruction, African-American men in the South could vote for the first time


14 SCALAWAGS  Southerners who joined the Republican Party  Many southerners were hopeful for change  Some wanted to gain political office through the African American vote CARPETBAGGERS  Northerners who moved South after the war  Southerners believed they wanted to profit from condition of the South  Some were agents of the Freedman’s Bureau, teachers, or ministers

15  Hiram Revels – elected to Mississippi state senate in 1869  1870 – 1 st African American elected to U.S. Senate  Period of saw greater African American involvement in politics  Local, State, and Federal levels  Many of those running for office had been educated in the North

16  “40 acres and a mule”  Promised by General Sherman  President Johnson returned land to original owners  Homestead Act – 1866  Set aside 44 million acres for freed blacks  Unsuitable for farming  Sharecropping  Landowners divided land  Workers gave a share of crop to landowner  Tenant farming  Land rented from landowners

17  Ku Klux Klan  Started in Tennessee in 1866  Nathan Bedford Forrest ▪ 1 st Grand Dragon ▪ Former Confederate General ▪ Left Klan due to violence  Spread through South  Turned into violent terrorist organization

18  Election of 1876  Grant would not pursue a third term - scandal  Republicans  Rutherford B. Hayes  Democrats  Samuel Tilden  Tilden wins popular vote, but loses electoral vote  20 electoral votes disputed  Compromise:  Democrats accept Hayes  Withdrawal of federal troops from southern states  Federal money for infrastructure  Hayes to choose conservative for Cabinet post

19  As a result of Congressional Reconstruction ( )  All eleven Southern states were re-admitted to the Union  The 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th Amendments were passed ▪ Providing protections and opportunities for African Americans in the South ▪ Difficult to enforce and sustain as Democrats slowly took back the Southern legislatures ▪ Jim Crow laws, poll taxes, property qualifications

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