Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction Triumph of Race and Politics 1863-1877."— Presentation transcript:
Reconstruction Triumph of Race and Politics
Reconstruction Began as War Measure First Emancipation Proclamation Lincolns 10% Plan Goal was an easy peace to shorten war
Who Should Control ReconstructionCongress or President? Wade-Davis Bill Lincoln Pocket Veto Assassination of Lincoln left question unresolved when Andrew Johnson became president.
Lincolns Second Inaugural With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan--to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.
Freedmans Bureau Relief and Education Clothing Medicine Custody of confiscated lands Built schools
Freedmans Bureau Schools
Andrew Johnson Rags to Riches Story Initially a darling of and later a disappointment to Radical Republicans Reconstruction Plan (Proclamation of AmnestyMay 1865) similar to Lincolns
Radical Republicans: Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner, Ben Wade
Southerners Dont Get It Elect ex-CSA leaders to Congress, including Alexander Stephens Black Codes Race Riots
Radicals Respond Barely failed to override Johnsons Veto of Bill to Extend Life of Freedmans Bureau Overrode Johnsons Veto of CRA of 1866 Enacted a new Freedmens Bureau Sent 14 th Amendment to Statesratified by them in 1868 Radicals insisted on Civil Rights for former slaves
Radicals on a RollMarch 2, 1867 Military Reconstruction Act Command of the Army Act Tenure of Office Act
Military Reconstruction Act Divided South into Military Districts Southern StatesExcept for TNwould write new constitutions w/ Universal Adult Male Suffrage States had to ratify 14 th amendment Subsequent legislation gave Army power to register voters and to disqualify disloyal persons from registering
South Readmitted By 1870, Southern states were readmitted Some had to ratify 15 th amendment Reconstruction Constitutions were mostly LIBERALwritten by Carpetbaggers
Johnson Impeached Vote to remove was 35 to 18, one shy of the 2/3 needed Radicals didnt need to remove Johnson; by the time of his trial it was 1868, an election year; he could simply be ignored.
Major Achievements of Reconstruction 14 th and 15 th Amendments African American Participation in Public Life Readmission of Southern States
14 th Amendment National Definitions of Citizenship Equal Protection Clause Due Process Clause High Confederate Officials banned from national office Confederate debt repudiated
15 th Amendment The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Failure of Reconstruction Southern whites were violently opposed to black rights; many in north were indifferent Rise of KKK Where army was present, KKK leaders were apprehended and imprisoned Land Reformblacks (and poor whites) left to farm tenancy (sharecropping)
Freedmens World Independent Churches Political Participation600 served in State legislatures up to the 1890s
Grant Presidency Did attempt to enforce Reconstruction Presidency clouded by scandals Republican party divided between Stalwart and Liberal Republicanslittle energy left to devote to Reconstruction.
1876 Presidential Election Disputed results between Hayes and Tilden Democrats accept result of Wormsley Hotel Conference Southerner named to Cabinet, army withdrawn from south, Southern Pacific railway