Presentation on theme: "Triumph of Race and Politics"— Presentation transcript:
1 Triumph of Race and Politics 1863-1877 ReconstructionTriumph of Race and Politics
2 Reconstruction Began as War Measure First Emancipation ProclamationLincoln’s 10% PlanGoal was an easy peace to shorten war
3 Who Should Control Reconstruction—Congress or President? Wade-Davis BillLincoln Pocket VetoAssassination of Lincoln left question unresolved when Andrew Johnson became president.
4 Lincoln’s Second Inaugural With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan--to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.
5 Freedman’s Bureau Relief and Education Clothing Medicine Custody of confiscated landsBuilt schools
9 Radical Republicans: Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner, Ben Wade
10 Southerners Don’t Get It Elect ex-CSA leaders to Congress, including Alexander StephensBlack CodesRace Riots
11 Radicals RespondBarely failed to override Johnson’s Veto of Bill to Extend Life of Freedman’s BureauOverrode Johnson’s Veto of CRA of 1866Enacted a new Freedmen’s BureauSent 14th Amendment to States—ratified by them in 1868Radicals insisted on Civil Rights for former slaves
12 Radicals on a Roll—March 2, 1867 Military Reconstruction ActCommand of the Army ActTenure of Office Act
13 Military Reconstruction Act--1867 Divided South into Military DistrictsSouthern States—Except for TN—would write new constitutions w/ Universal Adult Male SuffrageStates had to ratify 14th amendmentSubsequent legislation gave Army power to register voters and to disqualify “disloyal persons” from registering
15 South Readmitted By 1870, Southern states were readmitted Some had to ratify 15th amendmentReconstruction Constitutions were mostly LIBERAL—written by “Carpetbaggers”
16 Johnson ImpeachedVote to remove was 35 to 18, one shy of the 2/3 neededRadicals didn’t need to remove Johnson; by the time of his trial it was 1868, an election year; he could simply be ignored.
17 Major Achievements of Reconstruction 14th and 15th AmendmentsAfrican American Participation in Public LifeReadmission of Southern States
18 14th Amendment National Definitions of Citizenship Equal Protection ClauseDue Process ClauseHigh Confederate Officials banned from national officeConfederate debt repudiated
19 15th Amendment“The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”
20 Failure of Reconstruction Southern whites were violently opposed to black rights; many in north were indifferentRise of KKKWhere army was present, KKK leaders were apprehended and imprisonedLand Reform—blacks (and poor whites) left to farm tenancy (“sharecropping”)
25 Grant Presidency Did attempt to enforce Reconstruction Presidency clouded by scandalsRepublican party divided between Stalwart and Liberal Republicans—little energy left to devote to Reconstruction.
27 1876 Presidential Election Disputed results between Hayes and TildenDemocrats accept result of Wormsley Hotel ConferenceSoutherner named to Cabinet, army withdrawn from south, Southern Pacific railway