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Triumph of Race and Politics

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1 Triumph of Race and Politics 1863-1877
Reconstruction Triumph of Race and Politics

2 Reconstruction Began as War Measure
First Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln’s 10% Plan Goal was an easy peace to shorten war

3 Who Should Control Reconstruction—Congress or President?
Wade-Davis Bill Lincoln Pocket Veto Assassination of Lincoln left question unresolved when Andrew Johnson became president.

4 Lincoln’s Second Inaugural
With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan--to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.

5 Freedman’s Bureau Relief and Education Clothing Medicine
Custody of confiscated lands Built schools

6 Freedman’s Bureau Schools

7 Andrew Johnson Rags to Riches Story
Initially a darling of and later a disappointment to Radical Republicans Reconstruction Plan (Proclamation of Amnesty—May 1865) similar to Lincoln’s

8 Andrew Johnson

9 Radical Republicans: Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner, Ben Wade

10 Southerners Don’t Get It
Elect ex-CSA leaders to Congress, including Alexander Stephens Black Codes Race Riots

11 Radicals Respond Barely failed to override Johnson’s Veto of Bill to Extend Life of Freedman’s Bureau Overrode Johnson’s Veto of CRA of 1866 Enacted a new Freedmen’s Bureau Sent 14th Amendment to States—ratified by them in 1868 Radicals insisted on Civil Rights for former slaves

12 Radicals on a Roll—March 2, 1867
Military Reconstruction Act Command of the Army Act Tenure of Office Act

13 Military Reconstruction Act--1867
Divided South into Military Districts Southern States—Except for TN—would write new constitutions w/ Universal Adult Male Suffrage States had to ratify 14th amendment Subsequent legislation gave Army power to register voters and to disqualify “disloyal persons” from registering


15 South Readmitted By 1870, Southern states were readmitted
Some had to ratify 15th amendment Reconstruction Constitutions were mostly LIBERAL—written by “Carpetbaggers”

16 Johnson Impeached Vote to remove was 35 to 18, one shy of the 2/3 needed Radicals didn’t need to remove Johnson; by the time of his trial it was 1868, an election year; he could simply be ignored.

17 Major Achievements of Reconstruction
14th and 15th Amendments African American Participation in Public Life Readmission of Southern States

18 14th Amendment National Definitions of Citizenship
Equal Protection Clause Due Process Clause High Confederate Officials banned from national office Confederate debt repudiated

19 15th Amendment “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”

20 Failure of Reconstruction
Southern whites were violently opposed to black rights; many in north were indifferent Rise of KKK Where army was present, KKK leaders were apprehended and imprisoned Land Reform—blacks (and poor whites) left to farm tenancy (“sharecropping”)



23 Freedmen’s World Independent Churches
Political Participation—600 served in State legislatures up to the 1890s


25 Grant Presidency Did attempt to enforce Reconstruction
Presidency clouded by scandals Republican party divided between Stalwart and Liberal Republicans—little energy left to devote to Reconstruction.

26 President Grant

27 1876 Presidential Election
Disputed results between Hayes and Tilden Democrats accept result of Wormsley Hotel Conference Southerner named to Cabinet, army withdrawn from south, Southern Pacific railway


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