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Types of Societies 4.3.

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Presentation on theme: "Types of Societies 4.3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Types of Societies 4.3

2 Introduction Role behavior often takes place in a group
Group: set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess some degree of common identity Largest and most complex are societies Classified according to subsistence strategies: the way a society uses technology to provide for the needs of its members

3 Preindustrial Societies
Food production: through human and animal labor – is the main economic activity Divided between their levels of technology and methods for food gathering Subdivisions: hunting and gathering, pastoral, horticultural and agricultural

4 Hunting and Gathering Hunting and Gathering:
Daily collection of plants and hunting of wild animals Move around in search of food Do not build permanent settlements Need for mobility limits the size of population Fewer than 60 people Statuses within group are relative equal Decisions reached through general agreement Family forms the social unit Requires the family to carry out most social functions- production and labor

5 Pastoral Society Pastoral Society:
Rely on domesticated animals to meet food needs Nomadic life- herds from pasture to pasture Can support larger populations Division of labor: -how work is divided- is much more complex Craft workers, jewelry makers, etc Production of goods encourage trade Creates inequalities among families: some have more goods than others Acquire power with wealth of goods Passing on property from one generation to the next maintains and stabilizes power Hereditary chieftainship: typical form of government

6 Horticultural Society
Horticultural Societies: Fruits and vegetables grown on garden plots Technology and complexity similar to pastoral societies Rotating plots they can occupy an area over a long period of time Semi permanent or permanent settlements ( people) More complex division of labor Specialized roles: crafts people, shamans or religious leaders, and traders Create wide variety of artifacts Inequalities in wealth and power Hereditary chieftains Economic and political systems are more developed- more settled way of life

7 Agricultural Society Agricultural Societies:
Animals used to plow fields Technological innovation allows for plating of crops than possible when human labor is used Irrigation Terracing: cutting of fields into sides of hills Support large populations Specialized roles: Leads to cities Power often falls into one or a few individuals Hereditary monarchy Powerful armies

8 Agricultural Society Construct roads; increase trade with sufficient transportation Abandon barter system- exchange of good or service Develop system of writing; keep records Sharp status difference first arise: landowners or peasants Landowners: power and wealth Peasants: do all the work

9 Industrial Societies Industrial Societies: emphasis shifts from food production to the production of manufactured goods Made possible by changes in production methods Preindustrial: animal human labor; small and slow Industrial: Machines; a lot and fast Increases the amount of food produced, increases population size Reduces the demand for agricultural laborers Size of the workforce increases as new technologies make it possible to produce a wider variety of goods

10 Industrial Societies Location of work changes: from home settings to factories Factories built in cities- people move to the cities Urbanization: concentration of population in a city Nature of work changes- from specialized of whole product to a series of specialization and different people perform different tasks Increase productivity Reduces the level of skill and create boredom

11 Industrial Societies Changes the role of various social institutions:
Preindustrial: family is primary; production and education is family responsibility Industrial: production and education take pace outside of the home; need for mass literacy creates need for programs of mass education systems Religion: scientific ideas challenge religious beliefs Brings people more freedom to compete for social positions Preindustrial: ascribed statuses Industrial: achieved; more control over their social position in the social structure

12 Postindustrial Societies
Postindustrial Societies: economy is involved in providing and information and services United States and Western Europe 73% of the workforce in U.S.; 2% agricultural and 25% in production of goods Social changes: Standard of living and quality of life improve as wages increase Place strong emphasis on science and education Technological advances are key to future prosperity Rights of individuals and search for personal self fulfillment take added importance Strong emphasis on social equality and democracy

13 Contrasting Societies
Mechanical solidarity: Durkheim- preindustrial societies held together perform the same tasks, share the same values, become united in a common whole Organic solidarity: Division of labor becomes more complex impersonal social relationships that arise with increased job specialization, individuals can no longer provide for their own needs Become more dependant on other individuals for aspects of their survival Social relationships based on needs than values

14 Contrasting Societies
German sociologist: Ferdinand Tonnes Two Ideal Types of societies based on social structure of social relationships and the degree of valued shared among societal members Gemeinschaft: “community” Most members know one another Relationships are close Activities center around the family and the community Share a strong sense of group solidarity Preindustrial village or rural society

15 Contrasting Societies
Gesellschaft: “society” Social relationships based on need; impersonal and often temporary Traditional values are often weak Individual goals more important than the groups Modern urban society in United States

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