2 Group:A set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and identitySocieties: largest and most complex
3 Subsistence strategies The way society uses technology to meet the needs of members
4 Preindustrial Society The main source of economic activity is FOOD PRODUCTION.Preindustrial societies are divided into their method of producing food:Hunting and GatheringPastoral SocietiesHorticultural SocietiesAgricultural Societies
5 Hunting and Gathering Society The main form of food production consists of the collection of wild plants and hunting of wild animals.
6 Hunting Gathering Societies Hunting and gathering societies consists of fewer than 60 people and rarely exceed 100. They are called “bands.”Dawn of Social Networks
7 Pastoral SocietiesRather than searching for food on a daily basis, members in a pastoral society rely on domesticated herd animals to meet their food needs.
8 Pastoral SocietiesDivision of labor- Because there are food surpluses, individuals within the group become specialized at specific economic tasks.EX- craft workers, producing tools, weapons, jewelry…These types of societies still exist, but are facing change:
9 Horticultural Societies Main source of food is fruits and vegetables grown in garden plots that have been cleared from the jungle or forest.
10 Horticultural Societies Slash and burn method to raise crops: wild vegetation is cut and burned and the ash is used as fertilizer.Clip:
11 Agricultural Societies Animals are used to pull plows and till fields.
12 Agricultural Societies Technology allows agriculturalists to plant more crops than is possible than when only human labor is used.Higher crop yields = large populationsSharp divisions in status – landowners (wealth and power) and peasants (workers).
13 Industrial SocietiesEmphasis shifts from production of food to manufactured goods.Technology and the use of machines takes place of the farm laborer and those people work in production of goods.
14 Industrial SocietyIndustrial Society leads to urbanization – concentration of the population in cities.In preindustrial society the family is the primary social institution, which provides production and education.In industrial society production and education take place outside the family. The need for literacy in industrialized society leads to compulsory education.
15 Industrialization Continued One positive effect of industrialization is it brings freedom to compete for social position. (In preindustrial societies social statuses are ascribed).Statuses in industrial society becomes achieved.
16 Postindustrial Societies Economy is based on providing information and services.US 73% involved in providing goods and services, 2% involved in agriculture, 25% in the production of goods.
17 Changes from industrial to postindustrial societies Postindustrial society emphasis on the roles of science and education.Standard of living and quality of life improve as wages increase.Search for personal fulfillment takes on added importance.
18 Mechanical and Organic Solidarity DurkheimPreindustrial societies are held together by mechanical solidarity, people share the same values and perform the same tasks, they become united in a common whole.As the division of labor become more complex mechanic solidarity gives way to organic solidarity (refers to impersonal social relationships that rises from increased job specialization).
19 Gemeinschaft (Tonnies) German word meaning “community”Society where most members know one another.Activities center on family and community.Examples: Preindustrial society or a rural small town or village.
20 Gesellschaft (Tonnies) Refers to society in which most social relationships are based on NEED rather than emotion.Relationships are impersonal and often temporary.Individual’s goals are more important than the group’s.Modern urban society.