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Groups Within Society Where do you fit in society?

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Presentation on theme: "Groups Within Society Where do you fit in society?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Groups Within Society Where do you fit in society?

2 GROUPS WITHIN SOCIETY A SOCIETY IS NOT ONLY A GROUP…IT IS A GROUP MADE UP OF OTHER SMALLER GROUPS EVERY PERSON IN SOCIETY PARTICIPATES IN GROUPS GROUPS CAN BE SMALL SMALL GROUP – TWO PEOPLE ON A DATE GROUPS CAN BE LARGE LARGE GROUP – 500 SOLDIERS AT BOOT CAMP

3 WHAT IS A GROUP? A GROUP HAS FOUR MAJOR FEATURES: MUST CONSIST OF TWO OR MORE PEOPLE MUST BE INTERACTION BETWEEN MEMBERS MEMBERS MUST HAVE SHARED EXPECTATIONS MEMBER MUST POSSESS SOME SENSE OF COMMON IDENTITY

4 WHAT IS A GROUP? INTERACTION, SHARED EXPECTATIONS, AND A COMMON IDENTITY DISTINGUISH A GROUP FROM AN AGGREGATE OR A SOCIAL CATEGORY AGGREGATE – WHEN PEOPLE GATHER IN THE SAME PLACE AT THE SAME TIME, BUT LACK ORGANIZATION OR PATTERNS OF INTERACTION EXAMPLES OF AGGREGATES: PASSENGERS ON A PLANE PEOPLE WAITING IN LINE FOR TICKETS

5 WHAT IS A GROUP SOCIAL CATEGORY – A WAY OF CLASSIFYING PEOPLE ACCORDING TO A SHARED TRAIT OR STATUS EXAMPLES OF SOCIAL CATEGORIES: STUDENTSWOMENTEENAGERS LEFT-HANDED PEOPLE

6 SIZES OF SOCIAL GROUPS DYAD – THE SMALLEST GROUP POSSIBLE A DYAD IS A GROUP WITH ONLY TWO MEMBERS IF ONE MEMBER LEAVES, THE GROUP ENDS DECISION MAKING IN A DYAD CAN BE DIFFICULT IF THE MEMBERS DON’T AGREE, THE GROUP ENDS

7 SIZES OF SOCIAL GROUPS SOCIOLOGISTS BELIEVE A MAJOR CHANGE OCCURS IN GROUPS WHEN GROUP SIZES INCREASE FROM TWO MEMBERS TO THREE MEMBERS TRIAD – A THREE PERSON GROUP NO ONE PERSON CAN DISBAND THE GROUP DECISION MAKING CAN BE EASIER THAN IN A DYAD TWO-AGAINST-ONE ALLIANCES CAN FORM

8 SIZES OF SOCIAL GROUPS HOW LARGE CAN A SMALL GROUP BE? SMALL GROUP – A GROUP WITH FEW ENOUGH MEMBERS THAT EVERYONE IS ABLE TO INTERACT ON A FACE-TO-FACE BASIS SOCIOLOGISTS HAVE FOUND THAT 15 IS THE LARGEST NUMBER OF PEOPLE THAT CAN WORK WELL IN ONE GROUP WHEN A GROUP IS LARGER THAN 15, MEMBERS WILL TEND TO SORT THEMSELVES INTO SMALLER GROUPS

9 ORGANIZATION OF GROUPS THE ORGANIZATION OF GROUPS CAN BE EITHER FORMAL OR INFORMAL FORMAL GROUP – THE STRUCTURE, GOALS, AND ACTIVITIES OF THE GROUP ARE CLEARLY DEFINED EXAMPLES OF FORMAL GROUPS: STUDENT BODY OFFICERS CHURCHES SPORTS TEAMS WORKPLACES

10 ORGANIZATION OF GROUPS INFORMAL GROUP – THERE IS NO OFFICIAL STRUCTURE OR ESTABLISHED RULES OF CONDUCT EXAMPLES OF INFORMAL GROUPS: GROUP OF FRIENDS HOBBY GROUPS COMPUTER GROUPS

11 Types of Groups We are all members of different types of groups The most common types of groups: Primary Groups Secondary Groups Reference Groups In-Groups Out Groups

12 Primary Group “One of the easiest ways to classify groups is according to the degree of intimacy that occurs among group members” Primary Group – Small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of time on a direct and personal basis Relationships are intimate & face – to – face Communication is deep Structure is informal Family relationships are the most common primary groups

13 Secondary Group Secondary Group – A group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary Casual and limited in personal involvement Person’s importance in the group = how well he/she performs in the group An individual can be replaced easily by anyone who can carry out the specific tasks needed to achieve the group’s goals Secondary groups are organized around specific goals

14 Secondary Group Examples:ClassroomsFactory Political Party Your boss does not care about your personality, religion, or hobbies Question – What do they care about? Answer – How well you do your job! Primary groups may form within the secondary group

15 Reference Group Reference Group – Any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they adopt Examples of Reference Groups: Friends School Clubs, Sports, or Activities People who have a particular occupation Children often change their reference groups How have your reference groups changed over time? Reference groups can be both positive and negative

16 In – Groups & Out – Groups All groups have boundaries – methods of distinguishing between members and nonmembers In – Group – The group that a person belongs to and identifies with Out – Group – Any group that the person does not belong to or identify with

17 In – Groups & Out – Groups Most in – groups exhibit three characteristics: Group members separate themselves from other groups through the use of symbols Symbols = Badges, Clothing, Names, Slogans Group members view themselves positively while viewing out – groups negatively In – groups generally compete with out – groups This competition can lead to conflict

18 E – Community E-Community – People interacting regularly with one another on the internet Interactions on the internet: Fight or argue Share gossip Flirt Have intellectual discussions Play games The only difference is that interaction is online


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