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“The War to End All Wars…”

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1 “The War to End All Wars…”

2 Setting the Stage For War
The Congress of Vienna set the scene for a balance of power in Europe; not one dominant country Germany was not figured into the balance at this time because it was not a united country After the unification of Germany and the powerful economy and military it established under Kaiser Wilhelm and Bismarck, the balance was upset

3 Rivalries Play a Part Rivalries over land began to surface during the Age of Imperialism Competition over land and raw materials sparked tension between nations of Europe Great Britain Austria-Hungary France Germany Russia Italy

4 The “M.A.I.N.” Causes of WWI
M is for Militarism: glorifying war and your military powers A is for Alliances: defense agreements among the nations involved in WWI I is for Imperialism: nations gaining control of territory for their own benefit N is for Nationalism: feelings of loyalty and patriotism towards a region

5 The Alliances of WWI ALLIED POWERS (Triple Entente): Russia France
Great Britain United States Serbia Italy

6 The Alliances of WWI CENTRAL POWERS (Triple Alliance): Germany
Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Italy

7 The Spark of War Though countries were aligning, a peace remained in Europe In the Balkan region, growing tensions among nationalities emerged “the powder keg of Europe”

8 Assassination Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary visited Sarajevo in June 1914 When he would become emperor, he would give the Slavs a voice in gov’t and not all liked that He and his wife were assassinated by Princip, a member of the Black Hand Serbians held responsible for death by Austrian gov’t Germany promises to support Austria-Hungary in any action it takes against Serbia

9 Gavrilo Princip

10 Archduke Ferdinand and his wife

11 Prep for War Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia: let us in to investigate the Archduke’s death or it’s WAR! Serbian response of yes to an investigation but no to a trial made the Austrians mad In July 1914 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia

12 A Tangle of Alliances Leads to WWI
Russia supports Serbia immediately in a show of support for Slavic people Russia now declares war on Germany and A-H France and Great Britain follow suit and support Russia In great shows of patriotism by citizens, WWI had begun

13 Schlieffen Plan War strategy by the Germans
They invaded Belgium on Aug. 3, 1914 Problem Germans faced: 2 front war Schlieffen felt that the Russians would be slow to mobilize, so focus first on western front and take Paris From the beginning, this plan was flawed

14 Battle of the Marne Fought b/t French and German troops in NE France
The French pushed the Germans away from Paris, saving the city This battle signified the end of Schlieffen Plan

15 Russian Involvement Russia quickly mobilized and entered the war on the eastern front This diverted the Germans attention from the western front This worked until the Russians were severely beaten at Tannenberg

16 Stalemate For the first part of the war neither side was an obvious victor In order to fuel the war effort at home, propaganda was used to boost morale New types of warfare needed to be developed

17 Trench Warfare Dug on the western front so soldiers could have protection They lived, fought in these trenches They endured cold, rats, disease, uncomfortable living conditions Charged “over the top” to attack enemy trenches Once poison gas was introduced by the Germans, it changed trench warfare







24 Battles of Verdun and Somme
Verdun: Germans surprised Allies in France French held firm and Germans abandon attack ***One of the bloodiest battles of the war*** Somme: British and French offensive against the Germans Inconclusive and costly in lives The tank was introduced here

25 The Eastern Front Less entrenched Constant changes in battlefields
Russia not as prepared as western European countries They eventually stepped their efforts up and helped alleviate attention from the western front

26 Attack at Gallipoli Churchill (head of British navy) wanted to take the Gallipoli peninsula to supply Russia and strengthen Serbia Then they could take the Ottoman Empire out of the war Turks drove Allies back

27 Warfare + Water The Germans realized that the British dominated the Atlantic The British began to blockade German coast (food and fertilizer) In response, the Germans used their U-boats (submarines) to attack ships in the Atlantic At first, warships but eventually commercial ones

28 Warfare + Water (cont’d)
In May 1915 the Germans sunk the Lusitania and America outraged President Wilson said if they didn’t stop, US would enter the war



31 US Enters the War US citizens were conflicted about entering (especially immigrants) The Lusitania angered citizens, but not enough to go to war Tensions exploded in 1917 The Zimmerman Telegraph Germany promises to help Mexico recover lost territory if they help Central Powers in war Anti-German sentiment pushes US into war

32 A Shift in the War The US was a breath of fresh air to the Allied forces The US: Boosted morale Gave resources and manpower Helped guard the Atlantic with the convoy system

33 Total War Armies were running low on manpower, so mechanized warfare was used more Everyone (soldiers, workers, women, etc) needed to contribute to the effort…thus, TOTAL WAR

34 A Global Effect… Resources and manpower was needed from European colonies In return, these natives (i.e. Arabs and Africans) hoped for independence or citizenship at war’s end This often did not happen

35 End of War With the help of Americans, the French pushed the Germans back into Germany The demise of the other Central Powers soon followed The Ottoman Empire and A-H surrendered On November 11, 1918 at 11am the Germans surrendered to Allied forces (Armistice Day)

36 End of the War = Problems
Bloodiest war in history: 8.5 million dead and close to 16 million wounded Political structures of western Europe was shattered The Armenian Genocide took place at end of WWI Mass killings of Armenians by Turks Used Armenian support of Allies as an excuse Put in labor camps, shot, starved, etc Over 1 million killed

37 Wilson Pursues Peace Before the war’s end US president formulated a plan for world peace and for dealing with Germany The 14 Points: plan for world peace First five: causes of the war; next 8: specific boundary changes self-determination League of Nations Allies reject the 14 Points, France and Britain want their interests protected

38 Paris Peace Conference
So, the “Big Four” (US, Italy, GB, France) meet in Paris to work on a peace treaty ***Russia and Central Powers not invited*** Here, Wilson gave up some of his idealistic ideals so the League of Nations would be accepted

39 Treaty of Versailles This cut down Germany and punished them
The Treaty of Versailles (June 28, 1919) Provisions 9 new nations Demilitarize Germany Reparations to Allies War-Guilt Clause


41 Europe

42 Feelings Fade… People not as fired up about war now, they are war-weary and exhausted Family, land, resources, etc were lost

43 Treaty of Versailles Not Perfect
Weaknesses of treaty eventually help lead to WWII treaty humiliates Germany Russia felt ignored: excluded from peace conference; lost territory Issue of colonies & colonized peoples Vietnam

44 Legacy of WWI Germans shocked at Treaty’s harshness
Worldwide economic depression Search for scapegoats in Germany sets the scene for WWII

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