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War & Society 1914-1920 Chapter 23. Road to War Key factors precipitated war in Europe Imperialist expansion Militarism - Russia’s army - France and Germany.

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Presentation on theme: "War & Society 1914-1920 Chapter 23. Road to War Key factors precipitated war in Europe Imperialist expansion Militarism - Russia’s army - France and Germany."— Presentation transcript:

1 War & Society Chapter 23

2 Road to War Key factors precipitated war in Europe Imperialist expansion Militarism - Russia’s army - France and Germany - Britain, Italy, & Austria Nationalism

3 Europe Divided, pg 587 Triple Entente : France, Great Britain & Russia (later referred to as “Allies”) Triple Alliance (Central Powers) : Germany, Austria, Ottoman Empire (later Italy)

4 Outbreak of WWI, 1914 Serbia’s struggle for independence Problem with Austria & Russia’s impact Assassination, Archduke Ferdinand, June 28, 1914 “Black Hand” ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.

5 Gavrilo Princip (assassin) of the “Black Hand”

6 Outbreak of WWI Austria threatens Serbia Why would Austria turn to Germany before attacking Serbia? Austrian declares war July 28, 1914 Russia mobilizes Germany reacts by declaring war (8.1.14)

7 Widening of the War Schlieffen Plan/ 2-front war Aug 3- Germany dec. war on France Aug 4- Great Britain dec. war on Germany excitement of war (parades) What were some of the “first timers” in WWI?

8 The Great War failure of Schlieffen Plan - western front stalemate (4 years) eastern front - Russia defeats Austria - Russian advances into Germany

9 Russian failures Tannenberg, 1914 Masurian Lakes, 1914 Russian Revolution War turns to Western Front ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.

10 The Great Slaughter Trench warfare  Remarque’s All quiet on the western front  elaborate trenches  Machine-gun nests/ barbed wire  separated by “no man’s land”  Battle of Verdun- Feb 1916 (700,000)  Battle of Somme- July 1916 (21k) (1mil)  horrors of trench warfare

11 Entry of United States most important allied cause Neutrality? trade throughout the war - $3 billion (allies) vs. $376 million (central powers)

12 America’s entry: 3 factors Lusitania (5/7/1915) people killed (128 US, pg 589) Germany submarine warfare (Jan 1917) Zimmerman Note - German/Mexican alliance (Jan 1917) Wilson’s declaration of war speech

13 Raising an Army Selective Service Act of million drafted into military - 2 million volunteer - 10% African American Labor Shortages - women doing “Men’s” Work (p594)

14 U.S. entry (continue) America enters war ( ) Psychological boost for allies 2 million Americans on the western front by 1918

15 Last years of the war 2 nd Battle of the Marne Germany strikes western front (03/1918) - rapid success / 10 miles per day - US arrives - German offensive halted - plea for armistice (9-1918)

16 Last years of the war (continue) 2 nd battle of the Marne  German General Paul von Hindenburg later commented that “the American infantry in the Argonne (forest) won the war”

17 End of War  Carnage ends ( ) - What is significant about Nov 11?

18 The Push for Peace Wilson’s Fourteen Points (p 603): Creation of a League of Nations Wilson becomes international figure

19 Treaty of Versailles Attending the Paris peace conference in 1919, (from left to right) British prime minister David Lloyd-George, Italian prime minister Orlando, French premier Clémenceau and US president Wilson. The peace treaty following the end of World War I was signed between the Allies and Germany on 28 June, mandating German disarmament and war reparations, and establishing the League of Nations.

20 Paris Peace Conference (1/1919) Treaty of Versailles Signed June 28, 1919 What did the treaty officially do? New countries (p 601) German War guilt clause

21 Treaty of Versailles (continue) War Guilt Clause embarrassed Germany - $33 billion reparations bill - stripped of military (100k men) - reduce navy & eliminate air force  embarrassed/ inflation/ debt U.S. loans $millions to Germany until depression

22 WWI conclusion US (post-WWI) world’s strongest economy/ new hegemony power US fails to enter L.O.N. destruction of land & cities death of 10 million people/ 20 million or more wounded seeds of WWII planted


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