Presentation on theme: "War & Society 1914-1920 Chapter 23. Road to War Key factors precipitated war in Europe Imperialist expansion Militarism - Russia’s army - France and Germany."— Presentation transcript:
War & Society 1914-1920 Chapter 23
Road to War Key factors precipitated war in Europe Imperialist expansion Militarism - Russia’s army - France and Germany - Britain, Italy, & Austria Nationalism
Europe Divided, pg 587 Triple Entente : France, Great Britain & Russia (later referred to as “Allies”) Triple Alliance (Central Powers) : Germany, Austria, Ottoman Empire (later Italy)
The Great Slaughter Trench warfare Remarque’s All quiet on the western front elaborate trenches Machine-gun nests/ barbed wire separated by “no man’s land” Battle of Verdun- Feb 1916 (700,000) Battle of Somme- July 1916 (21k) (1mil) horrors of trench warfare
Entry of United States most important allied cause Neutrality? trade throughout the war - $3 billion (allies) vs. $376 million (central powers)
Raising an Army Selective Service Act of 1917 - 3 million drafted into military - 2 million volunteer - 10% African American Labor Shortages - women doing “Men’s” Work (p594)
U.S. entry (continue) America enters war (4-6-1917) Psychological boost for allies 2 million Americans on the western front by 1918
Last years of the war 2 nd Battle of the Marne Germany strikes western front (03/1918) - rapid success / 10 miles per day - US arrives - German offensive halted - plea for armistice (9-1918)
Last years of the war (continue) 2 nd battle of the Marne German General Paul von Hindenburg later commented that “the American infantry in the Argonne (forest) won the war”
End of War Carnage ends (11-11-1918) - What is significant about Nov 11?
The Push for Peace Wilson’s Fourteen Points (p 603): Creation of a League of Nations Wilson becomes international figure
Treaty of Versailles Attending the Paris peace conference in 1919, (from left to right) British prime minister David Lloyd-George, Italian prime minister Orlando, French premier Clémenceau and US president Wilson. The peace treaty following the end of World War I was signed between the Allies and Germany on 28 June, mandating German disarmament and war reparations, and establishing the League of Nations.
Paris Peace Conference (1/1919) Treaty of Versailles Signed June 28, 1919 What did the treaty officially do? New countries (p 601) German War guilt clause
Treaty of Versailles (continue) War Guilt Clause embarrassed Germany - $33 billion reparations bill - stripped of military (100k men) - reduce navy & eliminate air force embarrassed/ inflation/ debt U.S. loans $millions to Germany until depression
WWI conclusion US (post-WWI) world’s strongest economy/ new hegemony power US fails to enter L.O.N. destruction of land & cities death of 10 million people/ 20 million or more wounded seeds of WWII planted