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World War I 9 th Grade Social Studies Spring 2012 Unit 3.

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1 World War I 9 th Grade Social Studies Spring 2012 Unit 3

2 THE BIG PICTURE A variety of powerful forces – including growing nationalism, a tangle of alliances, and decades of rivalry and competition – created conditions that transformed a single assassination into a world wide war. New inventions changed the science and technology of modern warfare, which became more deadly and destructive than ever before. Entire countries were mobilized for war, and the global conflicts left millions of soldiers and civilians dead and societies in ruins. After four years of fighting, an uneasy peace was reached.

3 WHY WE STUDY THIS UNIT? Much of the technology of modern warfare was introduced in WW I. World War I helped to ignite the Russian Revolution of 1917. The victors dictated a harsh peace settlement that set the stage for WW II.

4 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS 1.What were the forces that pushed Europe to the brink of war in 1914? 2.How did ethnic tensions in the Balkans spark a political assassination? 3.How was the WW I battlefield different than those of earlier wars?

5 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS 4.How did WW I become a total war? 5.How did the Allies win WW I? 6.What issues made the peace process difficult?

6 UNIT OVERVIEW Last Unit: Imperialism Current Unit: WW I Next Unit: Russian Revolution

7 ODD DAY: LEARNING ACTIVITIES 5/3: The Great War Begins Qs 5/7: Intro. To war 5/7: Map Annotation 5/9: Causes of WW I Chart 5/9: Spark of WW I ppt. and flowchart 5/9: New Kind of Conflict Qs

8 ODD DAY 5/13: Historians View 5/13: war on many fronts & Balance of Power 5/13: Strategies & Modern Warfare prezi 5/13: Major Battles Chart 5/13: War Ends Qs 5/15: Stalemate Activity 5/17: Total War notes

9 ODD 5/17: Americans enter ppt. 5/21: Allies win ppt 5/21: Effects of WW I 5/21: Difficult Peace Qs 5/23: Goals of Big 3 5/23: Peace Settlement chart 5/23: New look for Europe 5/23: Unit Review

10 APPLIED LEARNING ACTIVITIES 5/21: Causes of WW I Chart 5/21: Map Annotation notes 5/23: Spark ppt. 5/23: War on Many Fronts 5/28: Strategies and weapons 5/28: Battles Chart

11 APPLIED 4/18: WW I Political Cartoon 4/18: Historians View 4/18: Balance of Power 4/20: Section 1 Quiz review 4/20: War on Many Fronts 4/20: Strategies of WW I 4/20: New Kind of Conflict part 1 4/24: Modern War Prezi 4/24: Major Battles Chart 4/24: New Conflict part 2

12 APPLIED 4/24: Modern War Prezi 4/24: Major Battles Chart 4/24: New Conflict part 2 4/26: Stalemate Activity 4/26: Gallipoli Notes 4/26: Winning the War Qs

13 Black Hand Neutral Central Powers Allied Powers Western front Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism THE GREAT WAR BEGINS TERMS

14 Trench warfare No man’s land War of Attrition Propaganda Battle of Verdun Battle of the Somme Gallipoli Campaign Genocide Stalemate A NEW KIND OF WAR TERMS

15 Total war Zimmerman note Armistice 14 points Treaty of Versailles Mandates Belfour Declaration President Wilson (U.S.) Clemenceau (Fr.) David Lloyd George (Br.) THE WAR ENDS TERMS

16 1. WHAT WERE THE FORCES THAT PUSHED EUROPE TO THE BRINK OF WAR IN 1914? The forces of nationalism, imperialism, and militarism increased tensions and rivalries between the European countries. As a result, alliances were formed as a defensive measure to maintain peace. Britain, France, and Russia formed the Allies Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire formed the Central Powers.

17 2. HOW DID ETHNIC TENSIONS IN THE BALKANS SPARK A POLITICAL ASSASSINATION? The Slavic people in the Balkans wanted their own independent state. Franz Ferdinand planned to extend political rights to the Slavic people in Austria-Hungary, which would undermine their movement for independence. To prevent this from happening, the Black Hand assassinated the archduke. As a result, the alliances between the Great Powers were activated and declarations of war were made.

18 3. HOW WAS THE WW I BATTLEFIELD DIFFERENT THAN THOSE OF EARLIER WARS? Industrialization led to development of new weapons that caused greater destruction. Machine guns, heavy artillery, and poison gas led to many more casualties. As a result, trench warfare and war of attrition were used as defensive strategies. A stalemate occurred as neither side was able to gain an advantage.

19 4. HOW DID WW I BECOME A TOTAL WAR? Total war is the devotion of a nation’s entire resources to the war effort. Governments raise taxes and borrow money to cover the cost of war. Censorship and propaganda are used to control public opinion. Finally, a draft is used to build up the military and women helped on the home front.

20 5. HOW DID THE ALLIES WIN? On the battlefield, German soldiers had lost hope of a victory on the Western front. On the home front, civilian suffering led to a revolution that forced the kaiser to flee the country. The Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary, and Bulgaria all surrendered. The Americans entered the war and helped the Allies by providing fresh soldiers and supplies.

21 WHAT ISSUES MADE THE PEACE SETTLEMENT PROCESS DIFFICULT? U.S. President Wilson proposed the Fourteen Points and believed in a “peace without victory.” France’s Clemenceau was driven by revenge and wanted Germany to assume full blame and pay reparations. Britain’s George wanted to weaken Germany but still wanted it to be able to defend against Communist Russia.

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