3 By the end of the 11th century, and for the following 200 years, kings and powerful lords imposed greater order in their territories.Where these kings succeeded, strong dynastic states emerged. Where the monarchs failed, as they did in the Holy Roman Empire and Italy, no viable states evolved until the 1860’s.
4 Spain 1469 Ferdinand and Isabella ReconquistaPurity of BloodOrthodoxy of Faith/Inquisition1492!1516 Charles V- height of the Spanish Empire1556 Philip II- wars against the Muslims, Dutch and the English bankrupted Spain-squandered all the gold and silver from Spanish America
5 The Hapsburg empire of Charles V. 1516-1556 As the ruler of many greater and lesser European states, Charles had a very complicated coat of arms. He was the heir of three of Europe's leading dynasties, the House of Habsburg of the Habsburg Monarchy, the House of Valois-Burgundy of the Burgundian Netherlands, and the House of Trastámara of the Crowns of Castile and Aragon. He ruled over extensive domains in Central, Western, and Southern Europe, and the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia. As Charles was the first king to rule Castile, León, and Aragon simultaneously in his own right, he became the first King of Spain. In , Charles became Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria. From that point forward, his empire spanned nearly four million square kilometers across Europe, the Far East, and the Americas.l "cite_note-4
6 AustriaThe Hapsburgs- used marriage, Catholicism and foreign threats to consolidate powerThirty Years War, Peace of Westphalia, tightened Hapsburg control over eastern states of HRE and control of Bohemia and Hungary.War of the Spanish Succession ( ) Austria emerged, along with England, as a major force in European political life
8 Prussia 1415- Hohenzollern family ruled Brandenburg 1616 Inherited Prussia as a fief from Polish king; began a dream to unite two provinces… further holdings grew through marriage and inheritance1653 – Frederick William - deal with nobles: made serfdom permanent but lost their voice in governing.Frederick William I: The Soldier-king: No natural boundaries emphasized defensive armyThe military class (Junkers) served as the bureaucracyFrederick the Great ( ) established Prussia as a great power
9 Russia 1682-1725 Peter the Great “time of troubles” ended with the election of Mikhail Romanov as CzarPeter the GreatCopied Prussia's political arrangement guaranteeing serfdom to be permanentIgnored advice from the aristocracyReformed the army in the manner of FranceBuilt a navy- learned ship-building from the DutchDeclared himself head of Orthodox ChurchBuilt St. Petersburg- “window to the west”
10 Holy Roman EmpireFailed to create a unified state- Emperor (a Hapsburg) was an elected office dependent on the Catholic church and the nobilityEmperors preoccupied with Italy and the PopeCharles V fought wars against Lutherans, Turks and French as well as his own fiercely independent princes1555 Peace of Augsberg granted religious toleration to each ruling family, (ending any possibility for religious unity.)
11 Francis I ( ) concluded an agreement with Pope Leo X (Concordant of Bologna) permitting the king of France to nominate and therefore appoint his choice of Bishops to the French church (the Gallican church.
12 Henry IV (1589- 1610) “Paris is well worth a mass”
13 Louis XIV:1638-1715 Reigned: 1643-1715 The Sun King Louis XIV of France ranks as one of the most remarkable monarchs in history. He reigned for 72 years, 54 of them he personally controlled French government. The 17th century is labeled as the age of Louis XIV. Since then his rule has been hailed as the supreme example of a type of government - absolutism. He epitomized the ideal of kingship. During his reign France stabilized and became one of the strongest powers in Europe.During his reign France became the ideal culture since he put great care into its enhancement so he could boast it to the world. The country changed drastically from savage mediaeval ways to a more refined, exquisite living - evident from his palace in Versailles. Within 54 years he did what several kings worked on for centuries. French culture became one of the most appealing in the world, and the name Louis XIV has been associated with greatness and glory.Born on Sept. 5, 1638, Louis was the first, regarded as "god-given," child of the long-married Louis XIII and his Habsburg wife, Anne of Austria. He succeeded his father on the throne at the age of four. However, he was also a neglected child, cared for by servants. Once he almost drowned in a pond because no one was watching him.
14 "The State is the King and I am the King“ - l'etat c'est moi"The State is the King and I am the King“ - (l'Etat c'est le Roi et le Roi c'est moi)His Ministers, generals, mistresses, and courtiers soon found out his weak point, namely, his love of hearing his own praises. There was nothing he liked so much as flattery, or, to put it more plainly, adulation; the coarser and clumsier it was, the more he relished it. That was the only way to approach him; if he ever took a liking to a man it was invariably due to some lucky stroke of flattery in the first instance, and to indefatigable perseverance in the same line afterwards. His Ministers owed much of their influence to their frequent opportunities for burning incense before him It was this love of praise which made it easy for Louvois to engage him in serious wars, for he persuaded him that he had greater talents for war than any of his Generals, greater both in design and in execution, and the Generals themselves encouraged him in this notion, to keep in favour with him. I mean such Generals as Condé and Turenne, much more, of course, those who came after them. He took to himself the credit of their successes with admirable complacency, and honestly believed that he was all his flatterers told him. Hence arose his fondness for reviews, which he carried so far that his enemies called him, in derision, "the King of reviews", hence also his liking for sieges, where he could make a cheap parade of bravery, and exhibit his vigilance, forethought, and endurance of fatigue; for his robust constitution enabled him to bear fatigue marvellously, he cared nothing for hunger, heat, cold, or bad weather. He liked also, as he rode through the lines, to hear people praising his dignified bearing and fine appearance on horseback. His campaigns were his favourite topic when talking to his mistresses. He talked well, expressed himself clearly in well-chosen language; and no man could tell a story better. His conversation, even on the most ordinary subjects, was always marked by a certain natural dignity.
15 Louis XIII Anne of Austria Louis was born on Sept 5, 1638 to Louis XIII and wife Anne of Austria (Hapsburg). But the circumstances surrounding the “god-given” birth is a real twist of fate. December 1637, Louis was caught in a terrible thunderstorm after visiting a convent outside Paris. His household had went on ahead to the next chateau to prepare for his arrival, but the storm forced him to seek more immediate lodgings. The clsoest was The Louvre, the rersidence of his estanged wife who, although they had been married for 23 years, had not spokeb with hin for the last 15! While the captain of the guard urged him to go, he was reluctant, no doubt he remembered the affair she had had with the Duke of Buckingham and the famous diamonds (later Alex Dumas byuilt his famous tale on this affair). At last he grudgingly agreed but he worried about Anne’s reception. Turned out it was probably much better than he thought for exatacly nine months to the day, little Louis was born!.
16 Cardinal Richelieu, PM 1624 - 1642 First modern Prime Minister“raison d'etat”Broke power of the nobilityCreated IntendantsHarrassed HuguenotsHis policies transformed France into a powerful state, bringing it into direct conflict with the House of Hapsburg and the Holy Roman emperors. Allying Catholic France with the Protestant Swedes in the Thirty Years' War, Richelieu looked on as sword-wielding mercenaries laid waste the tiny neighboring German states, helping fuel the grudges that set the stage for modern European history : Perhaps weary of watching dinner guests picking their teeth with the points of their daggers, Cardinal Richelieu orders the blades of his dinnerware to be ground down and rounded off. Et voilà, the modern dinner knife is born.Prior to Richelieu's flash of inspiration (or simple revulsion at bad manners), diners typically used hunting daggers to spear their morsels, which were then conveyed to the mouth by hand or with the help of a spoon. The fork, the implement that really revolutionized chowing down, had existed since biblical times. Despite its utility, however, the fork remained a relative rarity in the West until the 17th century, even among the French royals that Richelieu served with unswerving devotion.Richelieu's knives became the rage among the court and soon everyone who was anyone in France had a set. The dinner knife became commonplace throughout France after Louis XIV -- who, like most kings, had his own reasons for not wanting sharp blades and pointed tips around -- decreed its universality. Soon afterward, the dinner knife found its way throughout continental Europe to England and, eventually, the American colonies.9 September 1585 – 4 December 1642) was a French clergyman, noble, and statesman.Consecrated as a bishop in 1608, he later entered politics, becoming a Secretary of State in Richelieu soon rose in both the Church and the state, becoming a cardinal in 1622, and King Louis XIII's chief minister in He remained in office until his death in 1642; he was succeeded by Cardinal Mazarin, whose career he fostered.The Cardinal de Richelieu was often known by the title of the King's "Chief Minister" or "First Minister." As a result, he is considered to be the world's first Prime Minister, in the modern sense of the term. He sought to consolidate royal power and crush domestic factions. By restraining the power of the nobility, he transformed France into a strong, centralized state. His chief foreign policy objective was to check the power of the Austro-Spanish Habsburg dynasty. Although he was a cardinal, he did not hesitate to make alliances with Protestant rulers in attempting to achieve this goal. His tenure was marked by the Thirty Years' War that engulfed Europe.
17 Cardinal Mazarin, PMAfter 1661, the king thereafter controlled his own government until his death, acting through his high stateHe had a council (conseil d'en haut) and a few select ministers, whom he called or dismissed at will. The most famous and powerful of the ministers were Jean Baptiste Colbert in internal affairs and the marquis de Louvois in military matters. Breaking with tradition, Louis excluded from his council members of his immediate family, great princes, and others of the old military nobility (noblesse d'epee); his reliance on the newer judicial nobility (noblesse de robe) led the duc de Saint-Simon to call this, mistakenly, "the reign of the lowborn bourgeoisie." Local government was increasingly placed under removable intendants.
18 Le Fronde,While his mother was regent the great nobles and the judges of the parlement of Paris launched a major but uncoordinated revolt (the Fronde of ) in reaction to the centralizing policies of Louis XIII's minister Cardinal Richelieu and his successor, Mazarin. The royal family was twice driven out of Paris, and at one point Louis XIV and Anne were held under virtual arrest in the royal palace in Paris. This civil war brought Louis XIV poverty, misfortune, fear, humiliation, cold and hunger. This shaped his character and he would never forgive either Paris, the nobles, or the common people. Cardinal Mazarin was victorious in 1653 and constructed an extraordinary administration for the kingdom. Mazarin finally suppressed the Fronde and restored internal order. The Peace of Westphalia (1648), which ended the Thirty Years' War, together with the Peace of the Pyrenees (1659), which concluded prolonged warfare with Spain, made France the leading European power. The latter treaty was sealed by Louis XIV's marriage (1660) to Marie Therese ( ), the daughter of Philip IV of Spain.
19 The Palace of Versailles, 1662-1682 12 miles outside of Paris; took over 20 years to complete with 36,000 laborers and 6,000 horses fountains Louis moved in in 168410,000 nobility lived there for six months at a time; it cost them and Louis ½ yearly income to run
20 The Hall of Mirrors, 225 ft long! The Galerie des Glaces – 225 feet long – 17 huge windows each reflected in an equally sized wall mirror, lit at night by 32 silver chandeliers.FN: 1) Louis XVI married there2) Bismarck proclaimed King William of Prussia as Kaiser of a unted Germany after humiliating France in the Franco-Prussian war3) Germany was forced to sign the Treaty to end WWII in 1919
21 The NobilityLouis’ strategy to remove from power the birth nobles ( either through blood or ancenstry) who could challenge his power.
22 Domestic policies Intendants Edict of Nantes Lettres de cachet The “Old Bargain”Tax FarmersMercantilism1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants. These included full liberty of conscience and private worship; liberty of public worship wherever it had previously been granted and its extension to numerous other localities and to estates of Protestant nobles; full civil rights including the right to hold public office; royal subsidies for Protestant schools; special courts, composed of Roman Catholic and Protestant judges, to judge cases involving Protestants; retention of the organization of the Protestant church in France; and Protestant control of some 200 cities then held by the Huguenots, including such strongholds as La Rochelle, with the king contributing to the maintenance of their garrisons and fortifications. The last condition, originally devised for an eight-year period but subsequently renewed, was to serve as guarantee to the Huguenots that their other rights would be respected; however, it gave French Protestantism a virtual state within a state and was incompatible with the centralizing policies of cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin and of Louis XIV.The fall (1628) of La Rochelle to Richelieu's army and the Peace of Alais (1629) marked the end of Huguenot political privileges. After 1665, Louis XIV was persuaded by his Roman Catholic advisers to embark on a policy of persecuting the Protestants. By a series of edicts that narrowly interpreted the Edict of Nantes, he reduced it to a scrap of paper. Finally, in 1685, he declared that the majority of Protestants had been converted to Catholicism and that the edict of 1598, having thus become superfluous, was revoked. No French Protestants were allowed to leave the country; those who openly remained Protestants were promised the right of private worship and freedom from molestation, but the promise was not kept. Thousands fled abroad to escape the system of dragonnades, and several provinces were virtually depopulated. The revocation of the Edict of Nantes weakened the French economy by driving out a highly skilled and industrious segment of the nation, and its ruthless application increased the detestation in which England and the Protestant German states held the French king. Its object-to make France a Catholic state-was fulfilled on paper only, for many secretly remained faithful to Protestantism, while the prestige of the Roman Catholic Church suffered as a result of Louis's intolerance.The turning point in Louis's reign between the earlier grandeur and the later disasters came after Colbert's death (1683). In 1685 the king took the disastrous step of revoking the Protestant (Huguenot) minority's right to worship by his Edict of Fontainebleau, often called the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Many Huguenots--who constituted an industrious segment of French society--left the country, taking with them considerable capital as well as skills. In addition Louis's display of religious intolerance helped unite the Protestant powers of Europe against the Sun King.
23 Jean-Baptiste Colbert, 1619-1667 Economic policy of Mercantilism Favorable balance of tradeSelf-sufficient empire/coloniesGovt subsidies to establish new industriesAbolished internal tariffs/raised externalForbid exportation of foodstuffsBuilt roads and canalsExpanded navyCreated “standards of excellence” of everything French
24 Foreign Policy-War The 1st Dutch War, 1667-1668 The 2nd Dutch War,War with the League of Augsberg,War of the Spanish Succession,*** For 46 of his 72 year reign France was at war – goal: secure natural boundaries (Rhine river)the War of Devolution ( ) against the Spanish Netherlands, claiming that those provinces had "devolved" by succession to his Spanish wife rather than to her half brother Charles II, who had inherited the Spanish crown. The war brought him some valuable frontier towns in Flanders. Louis turned next against the United Provinces of the Netherlands in the third Anglo-Dutch War ( ). The intent this time was to take revenge against Dutch intervention in the previous war and to break Dutch trade. By the Peace of Nijmegen ( ) he gained more territory in Flanders, and the formerly Spanish Franche-Comte was added to France's eastern frontier, now fortified by the great siege expert, Sebastien Le Prestre de Vauban. Now at the height of his power, the king set up "courts of reunion" to provide legal pretexts for the annexation of a series of towns along the Franco-German border. More blatantly, he seized both the Alsatian city of Strasbourg and Casale, in northern Italy, in 1681.In September 1688, Louis sent French troops into the Palatinate, hoping to disrupt his enemies who had formed the League of Augsburg against him. The 9-year war of the Grand Alliance ensued. France barely held its own against the United Provinces and England, both under William III, as well as Austria, Spain, and minor powers; but the Treaty of Rijswijk (1697) preserved Strasbourg and Louis's "reunion" acquisitions along the Franco-German border. The aging ruler was almost immediately drawn into the disastrous War of the Spanish Succession ( ), in which he defended his grandson Philip V's inheritance of Spain and its empire on the death of Charles II. The genius of the English general the duke of Marlborough and his Austrian counterpart, Eugene of Savoy, was almost too much for the ducs de Villars, Berwick, and Vendome, who were Louis's principal generals. The terrible French winter of 1709 and near fiscal collapse also took their toll. Nonetheless, France rallied. By the Peace of Utrecht France retained most of its earlier conquests, and the Spanish empire was divided between Philip V, who received Spain and its overseas colonies, and Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, who acquired the Spanish Netherlands and Spain's Italian possessions. Louis was forced to agree that the crowns of France and Spain would remain separate despite the dynastic connection.
25 The impact of Louis XIV: 20% of population died during his reignFamine and unrest were commonTrade disruptedTax system ruinedTreasury bankruptAfter a series of celebrated liaisons with mistresses, notably Louise de la Valliere and Madame de Montespan, Louis settled down to a more sedate life with Madame de Maintenon, whom he secretly married about She shared with Louis the grief of lost battles and the successive deaths of all but two of his direct descendants. The two who survived him were his grandson Philip V of Spain and a great-grandson who became Louis XV when the Sun King died on Sept. 1, 1715.