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 Spain – 1580  Father was Charles V – Holy Roman Empire  Great grandparents – Ferdinand and Isabella  Aggressive; added territory for Spain  Europe’s.

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Presentation on theme: " Spain – 1580  Father was Charles V – Holy Roman Empire  Great grandparents – Ferdinand and Isabella  Aggressive; added territory for Spain  Europe’s."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Spain – 1580  Father was Charles V – Holy Roman Empire  Great grandparents – Ferdinand and Isabella  Aggressive; added territory for Spain  Europe’s “most Catholic King”  Crusaded against Muslims for Catholicism  Incredible wealth in gold, silver  Period of art and literature (Don Quixote by Cervantes)  Population increase; inflation; competition from other countries in trade  Dutch Protestant revolt  Defeat of his Spanish Armada 1588 (by England)

3  France – 1643  Henry of Navarre (Henry IV) first Bourbon – gave up Protestantism  Passed Edict of Nantes – religious toleration  Louis XIII weak; Cardinal Richelieu focused on strong economy  Louis XIV – guided by Mazarin  Thirty Years’ War – religious wars  L’etat c’est moi – I am the state

4  Weakened power of nobles (appointed intendants – gov’t officials)  Colbert - Finance Minister furthered industry, built roads, canals, trading posts in N. America; mercantilism  The Sun King built palace at Versailles  Revoked Edict of Nantes – lost thousands of Protestants which hurt science, culture, etc.  Flowering of French art and literature  Fought costly wars; heavy taxation

5  Austria – 1740 – Hapsburg family  Increased royal power; weakened nobles  Abolished local self-govt.  Seized Church lands, controlling Church  Standardized currency; reduced taxes  Tried to reform government  Improved economy; taxed nobles & clergy  Staunch Catholic; seized Church lands  Lost 7 Years War with Prussia, lost Silesia  Stopped Prussia from taking Austria

6  Hapsburg family - Austria  Enlightened leader  Reforms for Austria  Abolished serfdom  Catholic  Lifted restrictions on Jews  Educational opportunities  Hospitals

7  Prussia – Hohenzollern family  Autocratic rule – forced to watch friend beheaded as a child  Believed ruler should be like a father  Allowed Junkers (landholding nobility) to be officers in army  Produced strong militaristic state  Took Silesia from Austria (rich in minerals)  Encouraged religions toleration  Fought Seven Years’ War with Britain

8   Refused to pay tribute and freed Russia from Mongol rule  Faced off but both sides retreated  Extended Russia’s borders  Moscow becomes more important ◦ Byzantine crumbled – many Orthodox fled to Moscow ◦ Became center of Royal Court  Built autocratic govt  Trivia: first marriage at age 12

9  Russia – 1547  First to be crowned czar (tsar)  Good period – added lands to Russia, code of law, ruled justly  Bad period – after wife died – executed many boyars (landowning nobles); used secret police  Killed own son in an argument  Turmoil after Ivan’s death – grandnephew, Michael Romanov began Romanov Dynasty

10  Russia - Romanov family  Period of serfdom & agriculture  Mongol rule had cut Russia off from Renaissance & Age of Exploration  Visits west and sought western influence  Westernization and modernization of Russia  Introduced potatoes, first newspaper, improved women’s status, encouraged education  Needed warm-water ports (“windows” to the west)  Made men dress like Europeans, shave beards  Modernized and strengthened army  Built St. Petersburg on Baltic coast (after Saint)  Thousands of serfs died from disease, work, etc.

11  Russia – Romanov family  Most educated, cultured, well read  Some reform attempts – religious toleration, abolition of torture, capital punishment; most not put into effect though  Crushed peasant rebellions  Gave power to nobles over serfs  Strengthened and expanded Russia

12  England – Tudor family  Act of Supremacy – takes control of Anglican Church; wants to marry Anne Boleyn  Seizes and sells Church lands; burned monasteries  Religious conflicts between Protestants and Catholics  Marries 6 times  Ignores Parliament at times

13  England - Tudor family  Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn  Strong leader; expanded central govt.  Economic prosperity  Supported voyages (& raids on Spanish ships)  Popular – aroused British nationalism  Defeated Spanish Armada in 1588  Never married – ruled 34 years


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