2Establishment of the Bourbon Dynasty Huguenots – French Protestants (Calvinists)Between 1562 and 1589, civil war broke out throughout France between Catholics and French protestant Huguenots. Eventually, a Huguenot leader named Henry de Bourbon seized control of the French throne and established the Bourbon dynasty that would rule France for the next 200 years. He became known as Henry IV.Following the civil war, France was in chaos. Henry quickly began to rebuild the country into the strongest nation in Europe.
3Henry IVHenry converted to Catholicism to gain support of the country’s majority.Issued the Edict of Nantes in 1598 proclaiming toleration of Protestants in FranceBegan major economic reforms to enrich the nationBegan major public works programs to rebuild roads and bridgesIn 1610, Henry was assassinated by a crazed man as he rode in his carriage.
4Louis XIIIHenry was succeeded by his nine year old son Louis XIII.Louis was a shy and weak ruler he appointed a strong chief minister Cardinal Richelieu to aid him.He was married to an Austrian princess Anne in an arranged marriage.He spent most of his time at his hunting lodge at Versailles while Richelieu ran the country.
6Richelieu was a member of the clergy and a shrewd politician. Cardinal RichelieuRichelieu was a member of the clergy and a shrewd politician.He had two main goals:1. Make the monarchy the supreme authority in France.2. Build France into the most powerful nation in Europe
7Richelieu achieved his goals by: Cardinal RichelieuRichelieu achieved his goals by:Weakening the power of nobles by destroying their castles.Weakening the power of the Huguenots by destroying their walled cities.Enriching the monarchy by imposing heavy taxes on the lower classes.Entering the Thirty Years War in Germany to weaken Frances rivals.
8The Thirty Years WarBegan as a struggle in Germany between protestants and Catholics.German princes wanted independence from the Hapsburg Holy Roman Emperors.France sided with the protestants and the rather than the Catholics.Nearly 1/3 of of Germany's population died.Ended in 1648 with the signing of the Peace of Westphalia.
9Results of The Thirty Years War The Netherlands and Switzerland became independentThe Hapsburgs lost most of their authority in GermanyMany longstanding problems between European nations were resolved.France gained the valuable German territory of Alsace
10Louis XIV “The Sun King” In 1643, following the death of Louis XIII, his five year old son became king as Louis XIV. This began one of the longest and most remarkable reigns in European history. Louis XIV would become one of the strongest and most colorful monarchs of all time. He was known as the Grand Monarch or the Sun King and built France into one of the most powerful states in Europe.Louis XIV as a Child
11Louis XIV “The Sun King” The Sun King’s Reign is noted for its: The Sun King’s Reign is noted for its:Absolute RuleBlossoming of French CultureReligious PersecutionStrong Economic Policy
12Louis XIV “The Sun King” Absolute RuleLouis claimed Divine RightExercised unlimited powerNever convened the Estates General during his reign.Forced the nobles to live in his court so he could watch them.Chose government officials from the middle class in order to weaken the nobles.Louis XIV The Sun King
13Louis XIV “The Sun King” Blossoming of French CultureBuilt Versailles into the most magnificent palace in the world.France became the center of art and culture in Europe.French became the most widely spoken language in Europe.The greatest cultural and political figures of the time visited the court at Versailles.
14The Palace of Versailles Original Hunting Lodge of Louis XIII
19Louis XIV “The Sun King” Religious PersecutionLouis revoked the Edict of Nantes and Huguenots were persecuted.Protestants were forced to convert to Catholicism of leave France.Many of Frances wealthiest merchants left as a result. This later deeply hurt France.Persecution of Huguenots
20Louis XIV “The Sun King” Strong Economic PolicyAppointed a strong finance minister Jean Baptiste Colbert.Built new roads and canals to improve trade.Established French colonies and trade centers abroad.Protected French goods by imposing high tariffs on imports.Supported new industries with government funds.Jean Baptiste Colbert
22Philosophers of the Enlightenment MontesquieuWrote Spirit of the Laws which described that the perfect government had checks and balances built inRousseauWrote The Social Contract which proclaimed popular sovereignty which is the free choice of people.
23Philosophers of the Enlightenment VoltaireAdvocated free speech and religious toleration.DiderotCompiled collection of all knowledge, into the Encyclopedia.