Presentation on theme: "Bourbon France. Establishment of the Bourbon Dynasty Between 1562 and 1589, civil war broke out throughout France between Catholics and French protestant."— Presentation transcript:
Establishment of the Bourbon Dynasty Between 1562 and 1589, civil war broke out throughout France between Catholics and French protestant Huguenots. Eventually, a Huguenot leader named Henry de Bourbon seized control of the French throne and established the Bourbon dynasty that would rule France for the next 200 years. He became known as Henry IV. Following the civil war, France was in chaos. Henry quickly began to rebuild the country into the strongest nation in Europe. Huguenots – French Protestants (Calvinists)
Henry IV Henry converted to Catholicism to gain support of the country’s majority. Issued the Edict of Nantes in 1598 proclaiming toleration of Protestants in France Began major economic reforms to enrich the nation Began major public works programs to rebuild roads and bridges In 1610, Henry was assassinated by a crazed man as he rode in his carriage.
Louis XIII Henry was succeeded by his nine year old son Louis XIII. Louis was a shy and weak ruler he appointed a strong chief minister Cardinal Richelieu to aid him. He was married to an Austrian princess Anne in an arranged marriage. He spent most of his time at his hunting lodge at Versailles while Richelieu ran the country.
Hunting Lodge of Louis XIII (Versailles)
Cardinal Richelieu Richelieu was a member of the clergy and a shrewd politician. He had two main goals: 1. Make the monarchy the supreme authority in France. 2. Build France into the most powerful nation in Europe
Cardinal Richelieu Richelieu achieved his goals by: Weakening the power of nobles by destroying their castles. Weakening the power of the Huguenots by destroying their walled cities. Enriching the monarchy by imposing heavy taxes on the lower classes. Entering the Thirty Years War in Germany to weaken Frances rivals.
The Thirty Years War Began as a struggle in Germany between protestants and Catholics. German princes wanted independence from the Hapsburg Holy Roman Emperors. France sided with the protestants and the rather than the Catholics. Nearly 1/3 of of Germany's population died. Ended in 1648 with the signing of the Peace of Westphalia.
Results of The Thirty Years War The Netherlands and Switzerland became independent The Hapsburgs lost most of their authority in Germany Many longstanding problems between European nations were resolved. France gained the valuable German territory of Alsace
Louis XIV “The Sun King” Grand Monarch Sun King and built France into one of the most powerful states in Europe. In 1643, following the death of Louis XIII, his five year old son became king as Louis XIV. This began one of the longest and most remarkable reigns in European history. Louis XIV would become one of the strongest and most colorful monarchs of all time. He was known as the Grand Monarch or the Sun King and built France into one of the most powerful states in Europe. Louis XIV as a Child
Louis XIV “The Sun King” The Sun King’s Reign is noted for its: Absolute Rule Blossoming of French Culture Religious Persecution Strong Economic Policy
Louis XIV “The Sun King” Louis claimed Divine Right Exercised unlimited power Never convened the Estates General during his reign. Forced the nobles to live in his court so he could watch them. Chose government officials from the middle class in order to weaken the nobles. Absolute Rule Louis XIV The Sun King
Louis XIV “The Sun King” Built Versailles into the most magnificent palace in the world. France became the center of art and culture in Europe. French became the most widely spoken language in Europe. The greatest cultural and political figures of the time visited the court at Versailles. Blossoming of French Culture
The Palace of Versailles Original Hunting Lodge of Louis XIII
The Palace of Versailles
The Gardens and Fountains of Versailles
The Palace of Versailles The King’s Chamber The Queen’s Chamber The Theatre
The Palace of Versailles The Hall of Mirrors
Louis XIV “The Sun King” Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes and Huguenots were persecuted. Protestants were forced to convert to Catholicism of leave France. Many of Frances wealthiest merchants left as a result. This later deeply hurt France. Religious Persecution Persecution of Huguenots
Louis XIV “The Sun King” Appointed a strong finance minister Jean Baptiste Colbert. Built new roads and canals to improve trade. Established French colonies and trade centers abroad. Protected French goods by imposing high tariffs on imports. Supported new industries with government funds. Strong Economic Policy Jean Baptiste Colbert
The Daily Dressing of the Sun King
Montesquieu Philosophers of the Enlightenment Rousseau Spirit of the Laws Wrote Spirit of the Laws which described that the perfect government had checks and balances built in The Social Contract Wrote The Social Contract which proclaimed popular sovereignty which is the free choice of people.
Voltaire Philosophers of the Enlightenment Diderot Advocated free speech and religious toleration. Encyclopedia. Compiled collection of all knowledge, into the Encyclopedia.