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Chapter 21. Section 1 Absolutism Philip II Northern Dutch United Provinces of the Netherlands Monarchs.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21. Section 1 Absolutism Philip II Northern Dutch United Provinces of the Netherlands Monarchs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 21

2 Section 1

3 Absolutism Philip II Northern Dutch United Provinces of the Netherlands Monarchs

4 Absolutism  A political theory holding that all power should be vested in one ruler or other authority.

5 Philip II  Accomplishments  defended Roman Catholicism  helped stimulate the arts

6 Northern Dutch  Gained their freedom from Spain  United Provinces of the Netherlands  Established a republic

7 United Provinces of the Netherlands  Differed from neighboring states  elected governors  power depended on landowners and merchants

8 Absolutism  Monarchs  Believed in Divine Right  God created the monarchy  Monarch acted as God’s representative on Earth  Answers only to God; not subjects

9 Section2

10 French Civil Wars Henry of Navarre Edict of Nantes Cardinal Richelieu Louis XIV Cardinal Mazarin Jean Baptiste Colbert

11 Versailles Spanish Empire

12 French Civil Wars  1562-1598  Main cause  Religious differences

13 How did religious and political turmoil in France encourage absolutism? Skepticism? AbsolutismSkepticism

14 Henry of Navarre  Protestant prince  Catholic King  First king of the Bourbon dynasty

15 Edict of Nantes  Issued in hopes of bringing an end to violent religious conflicts in France

16 Cardinal Richelieu  Minister to Louis XIII  Increased the power of the Bourbon monarchy  Moved against the Huguenots  Weakened the power of the nobles

17 Louis XIV  Known as the Sun King  France’s most powerful ruler  Boasted, “I am the state”

18 Cardinal Mazarin  Minister to Louis XIV  Policies drove nobles to rebel against king

19 Jean Baptiste Colbert  Minister of Finance under Louis XIV  Mercantilism policies  Caused France’s economy to grow and prosper

20 Versailles  Palace built for Louis XIV  Political purpose  Showed the power of Louis XIV  Was the envy of other monarchs

21 Spanish Empire  Weakened  Experienced a period of severe inflation and heavy taxes

22 Section 3

23 Peace of Augsburg Thirty Years War Peace of Westphalia Maria Theresa Prussia Fredrick the Great

24 Peace of Augsburg  German rulers agreement to settle religious differences

25 Thirty Years War  A war in Europe between 1618 and 1648  Developed into a struggle for dominance between various powers, notably France, Spain, Sweden, and the Holy Roman Empire  Began as a war between the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor and some of his Protestant German states.

26 Peace of Westphalia  Ended the Thirty Years War

27 Austria  Maria Theresa  Inherited the Austrian thrown  Only after Charles VI had European power sign an agreement declaring they would recognize the heir

28 Prussia  Austria’s greatest enemy under Maria Theresa

29 Fredrick the Great  King of Prussia  Believed a ruler should be a father to his people

30 Maria Theresa  War of Austrian Succession  fought over the possession of lands that belonged to Maria Theresa

31 Section 4

32 Ivan the Terrible St. Petersburg

33 Ivan the Terrible  First Russian ruler to adopt the title of czar

34 Ivan the Terrible  Why he was called terrible:  Organized a police force that murdered people he considered traitors

35 Ivan the Terrible  Boyers  Landowning nobles  Suffered the greatest loss of power

36 Peter the Great

37  Serfs  Essential part of the Russian economy

38 Peter the Great  Liked visiting the west  Wanted to learn about Western customs and technology

39 Peter the Great  Westernized Russia  Raised the status of women  Made nobles wear western fashion

40 St. Petersburg  Built by Peter the Great  Why?  Wanted a city on a seaport  Near water routes to Europe  Made it easier to travel west

41 Section 5

42 Constitutional Monarchy James I Charles I Puritans Oliver Cromwell Restoration James II

43 William of Orange Absolute Monarchy English Bill of Rights

44 Constitutional Monarchy  1600s  England’s system of government

45 MonarchConflicts with Parliment

46 James I  King of Scotland  Inherited Elizabeth I’s throne and her conflicts with Parliament

47 Charles I  King of England  Lost the English Civil War  Tried and put to death

48 Puritans  Won the English civil war  How?  Cromwell  Defeated the Royalists  Puritans held the king prisoner

49 Oliver Cromwell  Puritan leader  Ruled England after the end of the English Civil War  Abolished the monarchy  Ruled as a military dictator

50 Restoration  “Restored” the monarchy, as an institution, to power in England  Began when Charles II took the throne

51 James II  Catholic King  Replaced by William and Mary

52 William of Orange  King of England  Came to power as a result of the Glorious Revolution

53 What were some of the most important political changes that resulted from the Glorious Revolution?

54 Absolute Monarchy  Parliament’s financial power was an obstacle

55 English Bill of Rights  Significance  Made clear limits of royal power

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