Presentation on theme: "How did Philip II extend Spain’s power and establish a golden age?"— Presentation transcript:
How did Philip II extend Spain’s power and establish a golden age?
What lands did Phillip inherit Spain, Portugal, Netherlands, Southern Italy Why and how did Phillip centralize and increase his power? Centralize gov’t at El Escorial, no advisors (all power to the king), used the Inquisition as a tool to get rid of political rivals
Expansion of Spain’s influence Battle of Lepanto: Spain and Italian allies defeat the Ottomans, Catholicism defeats Muslim forces and gains power over Mediterranean The Dutch Revolt: Long (80 yrs) war – costly fight for control over the Dutch. Began b/c Phillip tries to force Catholicism on the Dutch Spanish Armada: Large fleet of ships attacking England, demonstration of Spain’s power
How did Phillip encourage the Spanish Renaissance? Phillip a patron of the arts, founds academies for math and science, hires court painters
How did France become the leading power of Europe under the control of the Bourbon dynasty?
Making France a strong state Henry IV Coverts to Catholicism to end religious conflict. Passes Edict of Nantes to grant religious tolerance Cardinal Richelieu Reduced power of Huguenots and French nobility, destroyed feudal castles and outlawed private armies Louis XIV “I am the State” Builds Versailles, refuses to call the estates general, hires Colbert to regulate the economy, build a bureaucracy and takes power away from the nobles
What led to the emergence of Austria and Prussia as European Powers and rivals?
How did the 30 yrs war and the Peace of Westphalia divide the Holy Roman Empire? Politically: The Peace treaty destroys the HRE – over 300 new german states are formed when the HRE loss the 30 yrs war. Socially – many of the areas in the HRE are physically devastated by the extreme fighting that this war produced (depopulation is as great as 1/3 in some areas)
Hapsburgs unite their lands and repair their authority Set up efficient central bureaucracy and modernized Austria (Maria Theresa reforms) Hohenzollerns establish authority in Prussia Growth of the military under Frederick II = expansion of Prussia. War of Austria Succession Prussia attacks Austrian just as Maria Theresa is coming to power. War over one of the Austrian provinces (Austrian never gains land back)
Balance of Power leads to 7 yrs war Rivalry led to competition (between Austria – Prussia and England – France) Balance of power is based on alliance system so when one country goes to war they are often followed by other countries
How did Peter the Great and Catherine the Great strengthen Russia and Expand its territories?
Westernization and Modernization of Russia Peter’s Policies toward the boyars: Western clothes, shaves the beards and get a REAL job… Peter’s social and economic reforms: Builds schools, museums, library, imported western technology and Russian alphabet. Catherine’s reforms and interests: State sponsored education for boys and girls, Public works, modernizes the legal system and organizes the gov’t. – warm water port Catherine’s treatment of the serfs: Harsh to the serfs, puts down a revolt, (expand serfdom)
Russian Expansion and conquest Peter’s navy and warm-water ports: In cold port the ships are frozen, no trade during the winter months. War with Ottoman empire for warm ports… Peter loses. The Great Northern War and St. Petersburg: Sweden and Russia go to war over land that Peter wanted to build St. Petersburg on. Exploration of the Pacific Ocean: West – Alaska, Northern Cal, Siberia Partition of Poland: the dividing up of Poland – Russia, Prussia and Austria