Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Section 3. France under Louis XIV The reign of Louis XIV has been regarded as the best example of the practice of absolutism (a system in which."— Presentation transcript:
France under Louis XIV The reign of Louis XIV has been regarded as the best example of the practice of absolutism (a system in which a ruler holds total power) in the seventeenth century; his court was often imitated throughout Europe. Both Louis XIII and Louis XIV came to the throne at a very young age – therefore the monarchy was preserved by the authority of their royal ministers, Richelieu and Mazarin.
Richelieu and Mazarin Cardinal Richelieu Louis XIII’s minister Strengthened the power of the monarch Took Huguenots’ political and military rights because they were seen as a threat Had spies uncover plots by nobles and then executed them Mazarin Louis XIV’s minister Crushed a revolt led by the nobility Result: the people realized French stability lay in a strong monarch.
Louis XIV comes to power… Mazarin dies Louis XIV takes over the supreme power Becomes known as the Sun King – “the light of his people.”
Government and religion under Louis XIV Louis XIV had a palace built at Versailles. The palace at Versailles served three purposes: 1. Personal household to the king; 2. Chief offices of the state are located within; and 3. Subjects came to find favors for themselves. Louis removed his biggest threat – the nobles and royal princes – by keeping them out of politics and keeping them busy with court life. Louis did not share his authority with anyone. Louis was anti-Protestant. He revoked the Edict of Nantes, ordered all Huguenot churches to be destroyed and their schools to be closed. What was the result? 200,000 Huguenots flee to England, the United Provinces, and the German states.
Economy and War Jean-Baptiste Colbert – Finance minister of Louis XIV. He followed the ideas of mercantilism; granted subsidies to new industries; built roads and canals; raised tariffs on foreign goods. All of this made it possible for Louis to have the palace built, for maintenance of his court, and to wage wars. War: Louis had a standing army of 400,000 men. Other European nations had to form coalitions to prevent him from dominating. Louis’ legacy: He left France in debt and surrounded by enemies
Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe After the Thirty Years War, Prussia and Austria emerged as great European powers Prussia: Fredrick William the Great Elector laid the foundation for Prussia. Prussia was a small territory – it had no natural barriers for defense – therefore he built the fourth largest standing army in Europe. To maintain the army and his own power, Fredrick William set up the General War Commissariat which levied taxes for the growth of the army and state Eventually Fredrick William and his son are given the title of King
The New Austrian Empire Austria: The Hapsburgs had lost the Holy Roman Empire at the end of the Thirty Years War, therefore they began building their Austrian Empire in east and southeastern Europe. The Austrian monarch never became centralized or absolute because the state was composed of many national groups; each area had its own lands and political life – nothing tied the regions together except their idea of service to the Hapsburgs.
Russia under Peter the Great In the 16 th century – Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) was the first Russian ruler to take the title of czar (the Russian word for caesar). He expanded the territories and crushed the borders. When Ivan died, a period of anarchy known as the Time of Troubles followed. It ended when the national assembly chose Michael Romanov as the new czar; the Romanovs rule Russia over 300 years. Peter the Great: absolute monarch who claimed divine right. He was responsible for modernizing Russia – visited Europe and brought technology back to Russia.
Russia under Peter the Great Military Changes – Peter reorganizes the army and drafts peasants for 25 years of enlistment Built a standing army of 210,000 men Credited with forming the first Russian navy
Russia under Peter the Great Cultural changes: Peter prepared the first book of Russian etiquette; made nobles shave their beards unless they paid a tax to keep it; forced Russians to start dressing like Westerners; held gatherings and forced men and women to dance and talk.
Russia under Peter the Great St. Petersburg: Peter needed a port with accesses to Europe He fights Sweden for territory on the Baltic Sea and wins Began construction of St. Petersburg on the Baltic Sea in Western style – hired European architects to design it. It remains the Russian capital until 1918.