Definition- An absolute monarch is a king or queen with absolute power (total control)
India Developed one of India’s “Golden Ages”- time of peace and wealth G.A. made a peaceful and prosperous life for Indians of that time period. Don’t Write
Spain They sponsored the voyages of Columbus They discoveries of Columbus brought great wealth and power to spain Don’t write
Led the resistance against the invading Ottoman Empire. Kept Western Europe out of control of the Ottoman Empire. He gave up his titles and divided his empire. His son Philip would take control of Spain, the Netherlands, southern Italy, and the Spanish overseas. Don’t Write
Spain 1556- 1598 A. Spent Spain's new wealth defending Catholicism in Europe during Reformation and counter Reformation B. Spain loses power and becomes weaker nation again.
A. Philip II became Absolute Monarch, complete authority over gov’t and people. B. Divine Right- believed his rule came from God.
A. Seizes Portugal 1580. B. Gold and silver from Americas make Spain extremely wealthy.
A. Philip defends Catholicism against Muslims Protestants B. Spanish fleet helps defeat Ottomans at Lepanto in 1571 C. Spanish Armada defeated by British in 1588 Philip II and wife Queen Anne Marie
A. From 1550 to 1650 called Spain’s Siglo de Oro or “golden century” B. Philip was a patron of the arts and also founded academies of science and math C. Miguel de Cervantes wrote Don Quixote, the first European novel. It makes fun Spain's Feudal past.
A. Inflation weakens Spain's Economy B. Tax on lower class prevents development of middle class C. Spain buys goods abroad which makes Spain's enemies rich
There were religious wars between the Huguenots(French protestants) and the catholic majority. 1560-1590 Don’t Write
- St.Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (1572) – 3,000 Huguenots slaughtered
Protestant that converts to Catholicism Edict of Nantes- 1589 gives religious tolerance and protects Huguenots Goal- heal France. He was assassinated in 1610 stabbed by a fanatic who went into his royal carriage. Don’t Write
- became king but was weak. Appointed Richelieu as Louis XIII minister. Richelieu was a cunning, capable leader who spent next 18 years strengthening the monarch’s power. He ran France. Don’t Write
France 1643- 1715 A. Ruled for 72 years. Takes throne age 5. Cardinal Mazarin takes control until Louis is 18. B. Tax the poor people not the rich. C. Used tax money to build Place of Versailles D. To much economic pressure on poor- many starved.
A. Louis takes control in 1661 B. Appoints intendants— government agents—to collect taxes
A. Jean Baptiste Colbert—finance minister—helps economy grow B. In 1685, Louis cancels Edict of Nantes; Huguenots flee France
A.Believed in divine right B. He was called the “Sun King” The sun is a symbol of his power. He was the center of France like the sun is center of the solar system. C.“L’etat c’est moi” = “I am the state”
Built a beautiful palace at Versailles. Lived extravagantly
Russia A. Seizes power in 1696 begins to reform Russia B. Russia cuts off geographically with Europe C. Religious difference widen gap.
A. In 1697, Peter visits western Europe to learn European ways B. Peter had goal of westernization. Use western Europe as a model for change
A. Bring Orthodox church under state control. B. Reduces power of the great landowners C. Modernizes army by having European officers train soldiers
A. The great symbol of Peter’s desire to modernize Russia was his new capital city St. Petersburg. B. He wanted to “open a window to the west”
A. Expanded Russian territory, gained ports on the Baltic sea, and created a strong army. B. When he died in 1703, his reforms died as well. Nobles began to ignore his policy of serving the state. C. His polices contributed to growth of serfdom, which widen the gap between Russia and the west.