2 What is Absolutism?Absolutism is a system in which the ruler holds total powerTied closely with the divine right of kingsGod determines king, king only answers to GodWere our three branches of government rolled into oneLegislative, Executive, JudicialBest example of absolutism is France under Louis XIV
3 The CardinalsRemember, France was almost 50%/50% Protestant (Huguenots)/CatholicCardinals, serving as royal ministers (and employees of the Church) presided over the kingdom if the king was too young to inherit the throneLouis XIII had Cardinal RichelieuLouis XIV had Cardinal Mazarin
4 Louis XIIIInherits the throne in 1601 at age 8 from his father, Henry IV, or Henry of NavarreCardinal Richelieu holds power while the king is youngTook away political and military rights of HuguenotsSet up spy networks to catch plots of nobility to harm throneKing during the Thirty Years’ WarJoined Protestants in fight against rival Hapsburgs
5 Louis XIV Inherits the throne in 1643 at age 4 Cardinal Mazarin holds power for the young kingNegotiated the Peace of Westphalia to end the Thirty Years’ WarEnded a revolt to overthrow the crown known as the FrondeNobles wanting to protect feudal aristocracy from centralized governmentWith his passing in 1661, Louis XIV took supreme power
6 Louis XIV Comes to Power Louis XIV wanted to be a close, personal kingOrdered nothing to be signed without askingEstablished a royal court at VersaillesPersonal household of the kingChief offices locationPowerful allies and enemies had to come here to see Louis XIVIf enemies emerged within his council, Louis XIV removed themEnsured royal ministers obeyed his every commandGave him control of foreign policy, the Church, and taxesLouis XIV would become known as the Sun KingA source of light for all of his people
7 Power at the Local Level Absolute power could only go so far…what about the local level?Local politics controlled by nobles, local officials, and councilsHow would you reach areas controlled by nobles, local officials, and town councils?Louis XIV used bribes to ensure he controlled local politicsReligious control (Remember Philip II??)Louis XIV destroyed Huguenot churches, closed their schools, and drove them out of FranceWanted no objection to his authority
8 Funding the KingdomJean-Baptiste Colbert was controller-general of financesResponsible for funding for wars, building palaces, and maintaining the courtFollowed practices of mercantilism to bring in money to throneExport more than you importBecause of this, Louis XIV could hold a standing armyWaged four wars throughout his reign
9 Legacy of Louis XIV Louis died in 1715 at the age of 76 Creates an absolute kingdom in FranceAdded to the kingdom through warLeft France with a great debt
10 Absolutism in PrussiaThe Thirty Years’ War created several new Central European states…among them Prussia and AustriaFrederick William the Great Elector was leaderKnown for large standing army40,000 men (4th largest in Europe)Made money through taxes levied by the General War CommissariatEventually became a part of the governmentMade up of nobility known as Junkers
11 Not-So-Absolutism in Austria Led by the Hapsburg family of the Holy Roman EmpireStarted small, but gradually grew through conquestNever reached true absolutismToo many different groups of people to governEach region had its own laws and regulations
12 Peter the Great and Russia Czar is the Russian word for caesarIvan IV ( )Crushed the Boyars, or Russian nobilityMichael Romanov ( )Chosen after the “Time of Troubles”Peter the Great ( )Peter the Great claimed the divine right to ruleMade Russia an absolutist state
13 Military and Government European and Russian officersDrafted peasants into 25-year military serviceIncreased the army to over 200,000 menConstructed Russia’s navyGovernmentDivided Russia into “provinces”Hoped to maintain rule through police statesHad administrators that ruled each state
14 Cultural Changes Wanted to “westernize” Russia A book of etiquette was written to tell people how to actSt. Petersburg is created as a “window to the West”Dress and appearance was changed to fit European standardsCutting of beards on menRemoval of women’s facial shroudsTrimming of traditional clothing
15 Impact of Peter the Great Introduced Russia to the WestTraveled and visited with leaders of European nationsIntroduced the West to RussiaChanging of customs and clothingThe “window to the West” was openedSt. Petersburg
16 Exit SlipHow did absolutism change Central Europe? Did it affect all of the nations in Central Europe?How did Peter the Great rule Russia differently than his predecessors?Would you consider Peter the Great an absolutist ruler? Why or why not?
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