The Effects of the Crusades New Ideas and Products Europeans had greater exposure to new ideas like the use of zero in math, and foreign products like silk, rice, spices, coffee, perfumes, cotton cloth, raisins, and glass mirrors.
The Effects of the Crusades Increased Trade The European demand for foreign products eventually led to increased trade with the Middle East as well as with other parts of the world. Growth of Intolerance Led to the Christian persecution of Jews and Muslims, as well as Muslim persecution of Christians.
Because of the increased interest in luxury goods, a new merchant class arose Merchants and craftsmen organized into powerful associations called guilds They set the rules for all the craftsmen of their trade. New inventions like better water-mills, windmills, and mechanical clocks improved life. The first universities were established
English Political Traditions Magna Carta King John was forced to sign an agreement promising not to take away any free man’s property or to imprison any free man without following procedures established by the law. Guaranteed all free men the right to a trial by jury. LIMITED THE POWER OF THE MONARCHY (KING)
English Political Traditions Parliament Later English kings summoned nobles and representatives of the towns to grant them new taxes Led to the origins of Parliament
Kind of like the normal schism but greater Great Schism
The Great Schism (1378-1417) The Pope clashed with Europe’s secular (non-religious) rulers. Kings wanted to appoint bishops who controlled large areas of land, try priests in court, and tax Church lands. The Pope resisted. 1305, a Frenchman was elected Pope and moved the Papacy from Rome to Avignon in France.
The Great Schism It fell under the French king’s influence. 1378, an Italian was elected Pope who decided to move back to Rome. French cardinals claimed the election was unlawful and elected their own French Pope. This schism (split) greatly weakened the Church’s authority.
The Great Schism A Church Council then elected a third Pope in 1409. Finally, another Church Council deposed all 3 Popes in 1417 and elected a single Pope. The Church’s prestige was greatly weakened.
Interesting fact: wasn’t really 100 years Hundred Years war
The Hundred Years War (1337-1453) Broke out between England and France when the French king died without an heir and the King of England claimed the French throne. Slowly strengthened royal power in both countries. Instead of relying on feudal knights, each king established a standing army of foot soldiers. New weapons such as the long bow, gunpowder, and cannons made knights less important in battle.
Joan of Arc Joan of Arc, a young French maiden, rallied French troops around the heir to the throne. She turned the tide when she successfully drove the English out of Orleans and crowned the new French king at Rheims Cathedral. She was later captured and burned at the stake by the English as a witch.