Presentation on theme: "Unit 3 Europe in the Middle Ages Power of the Church Day 17 Skinny 33-34."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 3 Europe in the Middle Ages Power of the Church Day 17 Skinny 33-34
Unit 3 Essential Questions What political and economic systems emerged in the Middle Ages? How was the Roman Catholic Church a unifying force?
Gelasius’ Two Swords Theory Pope wielded authority in religious matters Emperor wielded authority in political matters Did not always work smoothly— conflicts over who ruled what
Clergy=church officials Pope—highest rank Bishops—supervised priests Priests—served the local people Medieval bishop's palace Medieval bishop
Unifying power of the Church Shared beliefs church brought people together during time of constant warfare Sense of community Sacraments—religious ceremonies that marked membership in the community Baptism Communion
Canon Law=Church Law Laws about marriage and church practices Church courts could try people who broke canon law Punishments Excommunication Interdict
Punishment related to authority Excommunication You were denied salvation All your vassals were free from their duties Could lead to interdiction Interdiction You could not have sacraments performed on your land So all your people were doomed to hell, too Pope had the authority to punish political rulers, even kings & emperors.
Church and State Popes and the Holy Roman Empire Otto I, or Otto the Great Crowned 936 Charlemagne was his hero Allied with Church Fought for the Church in Italy 962, pope crowns him “Emperor” Wax seal of Otto the Great
Church and State Popes and the Holy Roman Empire German-Italian empire became known as “Holy Roman Empire” Lasted until 1100 Italians and popes did not like being ruled by Germans Why? Lay investiture—kings or nobles had power to appoint clergy, name bishops Church resented this which led to a...
Showdown at Canossa 1075 Pope Gregory banned lay investiture German emperor Henry IV called a meeting of bishops he had appointed and ordered Gregory to step down (quit as pope) Gregory excommunicated Henry The bishops then sided with Gregory, threatening Henry's legitimacy as a ruler Henry tried to make up to Gregory to save his throne
Concordat of Worms Solution to Conflict 1122 Church and Emperor met to work out lay investiture Compromise called “Concordat of Worms” Only Church can appoint bishops Emperor can veto Henry IV begs forgiveness
The End of Another Empire Frederick the I, or Barbarossa, strong central leader Attacked Italy frequently, pope not happy Lombard League fought him in 1176 Lombard foot soldiers beat the knights Made peace in 1177 1190—Holy Roman Empire in pieces after Fred's death They kept trying to put together again Clashed with Italian cities and pope Weak central leadership because princes elected emperor Think—why did election by princes weaken central leadership?