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Middle Ages: 500 C.E. – 1500 C.E.Middle Ages CH. 13.

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Presentation on theme: "Middle Ages: 500 C.E. – 1500 C.E.Middle Ages CH. 13."— Presentation transcript:

1 Middle Ages: 500 C.E. – 1500 C.E.Middle Ages CH. 13

2 Invasions Trigger Change  Germanic invaders attacked the Roman Empire beginning in the 5 th did it affect the now- fallen empire?  Disruption of trade  Downfall of cities  Population shifts  Decline of learning  Increase in languages

3 Germanic Kingdoms Emerge Roman Law  Loyalty to public government  Written law code  Citizenship  Emperor/Caesar Germanic Law  Loyalty to family ties  No written law codes  Oral traditions  Warrior society  Chiefdoms

4 Kingdom of the Franks  Kingdom under Clovis  Converted kingdom to Christianity  Roman church supported and helped Clovis invade other Germanic kingdoms

5 Religion in Frankish Kingdom  Christian  Built Monasteries  Became centers of learning and education  Government centered in Rome  Gregory 1: broadened authority of the Pope; became secular

6 European Empire Evolves  Most of “Europe” had splintered into tiny kingdoms; exception Frankish Kingdom which grew to modern-day France  Charles Martel: palace mayor, defeated the Muslims at Battle of ToursBattle of Tours  Pepin the Short: son of Martel, became king with cooperation of the Pope, began the Carolingian dynasty  Charlemagne: Charles the Great, re-built the Roman Empire, took the title of “Holy Roman Emperor”“Holy Roman Emperor”

7 Charlemagne’s Achievements  Spread Christiniaty  Solidified relations bw Church and State  Lilmited authority of nobility  Expanded education throught empire

8 Individual Work/Homework  Finish Ch. 13 using the SQR Method  Scan, Question, Read

9 Age of Feudalism  Why? Invasions!  New Social Order emerges  Manor System = Economic System

10 Invasions disrupt order  Charlemagne's Empire destroyed by various nomadic invasions  Vikings: descended from Scandinavia, sea-faring acted as traders, farmers, explorers  Magyars: nomadic tribe from the East, captured people to be sold as slaves  Muslims: struck from the South, disrupted trade  Result: Centralized power broke down, local rulers gained power, military power became important

11 Feudal Structure  A political and social system based on mutual obligations  Lord controls land, grants a fief to a vassal in exchange for military protection  Three classifications:  Those who fought: nobles and knights  Those who prayed: clergy  Those who worked: peasants and serfs  Social class was inherited  Serfdom: at the bottom of the social class, labor similar to slaves but could not be bought or sold.

12 Manor System  The Economic system of Middle Ages  The Manor = the Lord’s estate, included farmlands, market, church, serf/peasants homes  Peasants rarely left the manor, paid taxes on all aspects of life; marriage, education, grinding flour, crops, medical necessities

13 The Church Wields Power  Combined spiritual and political powers  Unifying force for Medieval Europe  Conflicts: Church vs State

14 Church structure  Similar to Feudalism  Power was based on status amongst the clergy  Pope -> bishops -> local priests

15 Religion Unifies Europe  Church provided a sense of security during turmoil  Bonded social divisions of the Manor system  Local church held importance as social center

16 Church as Government  Canon Law: law of the church, abided by all Medieval Christians  Established courts, punishments  Ex-communication: used as the ultimate punishment and threat against Kings

17 Church and HRE  Otto the Great: Most effective ruler of Germany  Imitated Charlemagne  Formed close alliance with the Pope  Used church power to defeat German princes  Invaded Italy: crowned Emperor  Holy Roman Empire: German-Italian Empire  Resented by Italian nobles  Later Pope’s believed German rulers too powerful

18 Clash of Power  Lay Investiture: the power of kings and nobles to appoint church officials  Banned by Pope Gregory IV in 1075  Henry IV ex-communicated by Gregory  Canossa: Gregory forgives Henry  Concordant of Worms : Only the church can grant a Bishop his title, Emperor has power to veto the appointment  Results: German princes gained back much of their power lost under Otto the Great

19 Frederick I  Ruler of Germany, 1152  Repeatedly invaded cities of Italy  Italian merchants + Pope vs. Frederick, defeated Germany in 1176  Results: German princes continued the weak royal authority, fell behind England and France in establishing centralized control.

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