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The Clash over Germany and Italy

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1 The Clash over Germany and Italy
Chapter 13 Section 5

2 Chapter Review Who in the church did most people have contact with?
The regular clergy was made up of who? The system where a fief could be inherited by the vassal’s eldest son What is the governmental body that contains the Great Council and middle-class citizens Parliament had the power to refuse ___ _____ What were the schools that Charlemagne established based on? To become a knight a boy had to belong to what social class? a code of behavior for knights called _______

3 The Holy Roman Empire In Germany the great feudal lords elected Otto I as their king in 936 Otto went to conquer Italy, when he invaded however, Pope John XII begged Otto for help defeating the Roman nobles {The pope made Otto I Emperor of the Romans because he helped the pope fight the Roman nobles} Eventually the Holy Roman Empire was weakened due to internal divisions, the rise of other powers and the local nobles wanting to break from imperial rule Imperial power gradually declined until the title of {Holy Roman Emperor eventually became a mere figurehead}

4 Otto I :Otto the Great

5 Gregory and Henry IV Henry the IV inherited the throne at the age of 5
German nobles as well as the church saw this as an opportunity to restore power it had lost At the age of 15 Henry moved to strengthen his rule. Eventually those actions brought conflict with Pope Gregory VII. The conflict was based on the issue of lay investiture (remember from Sec 3?) Henry IV believed it was his right and Gregory believed otherwise Gregory excommunicated Henry IV and releasing the emperors subjects from their vows. He also urged the nobles to elect another emperor This struggle reflected the clash between church and state that became a continuing issue in the Middle Ages

6 Henry IV

7 Pope Gregory VII

8 Imperial Submission Fearing rebellion, Henry traveled to meet the pope, seeking his mercy Henry met the pope in Canossa, Italy, after being made to wait three humiliating days in the bitter cold to be admitted into the pope’s presence, Gregory revoked Henry’s excommunication The struggle over lay investiture continued, until finally in 1122 both sides met in the German city of Worms to resolve the conflict What they came up with was the Concordat of Worms. {Essentially the Concordat of Worms was considered a loss for Henry IV} It limited imperial power over the church and stated that only a pope had authority to select bishops

9 Frederick Barbarossa Frederick I aka Frederick Barbarossa, ruled Germany from 1152 to He also sought to gain control of Germany The northern Italy (Lombardy) cities of Bologna, Padua, Verona and Milan had grown independent of imperial rule. Each city-state had a wealthy merchant class Frederick set out to capture these cities. He captured, destroyed and ran the people out of Milan when they refused to submit. With the help of the pope the other city states formed the Lombard League They raised a powerful army that defeated Frederick in 1176. As a result the city states were able to govern themselves, but Frederick got recognized as an overlord {The long term effect of the Lombard League was showing the political power of city states in medieval Europe}

10 Frederick Barbarossa

11 Innocent III Between 1198 and 1216 the strongest of the medieval popes, {Innocent III, strengthened the church and increased its worldly power} Innocent believed in the supreme power of the church. He felt he had the authority to settle all political and spiritual problems Innocent III involved himself with disputes all over Europe. Freely using his powers of excommunication and interdiction to settle them Not only did he dominate all of Italy but in Germany he managed to overthrow two kings and put rulers of his choice on the throne

12 Pope Innocent III

13 Continued… Later popes, however, lacked Innocent’s abilities and as a result the power of the church slowly declined after Innocent’s death in 1216. {The great goal of uniting Germany and Italy was never achieved} Not only did attempts to unify Italy and Germany fail, but each country also remained divided from within into small independent cities and feudal states Neither Italy nor Germany were unified until the 1800’s

14 Section Review The pope made Otto I Emperor of the Romans because he helped the pope fight the who? Holy Roman Emperor eventually became a mere figurehead Essentially the Concordat of Worms was considered a loss for who? Innocent III, strengthened what? and increased its worldly power Was the great goal of uniting Germany and Italy achieved?

15 Buy your Pope Innocent III action figure today
Buy your Pope Innocent III action figure today. He’ll teach you to make all your peers believe what you believe. Whether they want to or not

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