Presentation on theme: "Warm-Up What two things changed the technology of warfare in the Middle Ages? What group influenced the cavalry? Define Chivalry. Describe the role of."— Presentation transcript:
Warm-Up What two things changed the technology of warfare in the Middle Ages? What group influenced the cavalry? Define Chivalry. Describe the role of women in the Middle Ages.
Warm-Up What two things changed the technology of warfare in the Middle Ages? What group influenced the cavalry? Stirrups and Saddles Define Chivalry. Describe the role of women in the Middle Ages.
Warm-Up What two things changed the technology of warfare in the Middle Ages? What group influenced the cavalry? Stirrups and Saddles Define Chivalry. a complex set of ideals; and demanded that a knight fight bravely in defense of three masters by devoting himself to: Earthly feudal lord, His heavenly lord, and His chosen lady Describe the role of women in the Middle Ages
Warm-Up What two things changed the technology of warfare in the Middle Ages? What group influenced the cavalry? Stirrups and Saddles Define Chivalry. a complex set of ideals; and demanded that a knight fight bravely in defense of three masters by devoting himself to: Earthly feudal lord, His heavenly lord, and His chosen lady Describe the role of women in the Middle Ages Women could inherit an estate from her husband; played a key role in defending castles when men were out fighting.
The Church Wields Power Chapter 13 Sect. 4 Pages
The Scope of the Church Authority Around 300 C.E. Pope Gelasius I realized there would be tension between the Church and state in the future. To solve this he created 2 symbolic swords The pope held a spiritual sword The emperor held a political sword
The Scope of the Church Authority Gelasius thought that the pope would bow to the emperor in political matters and the emperor would bow to the pope in spiritual matters. In reality the two fought over their what was spiritual and political and who should control what.
Church Structure Distribution of power in the church was based on status Church structure was based on different ranks of clergy CLERGY = religious officials
Church Structure Pope = headed the church in Rome. Bishops supervised priests Priests served as the peoples contact with the church.
Religion as a Unifying Force Feudalism and the Manor system created divisions between the people. The Church brought them together. The Church provided Christians with a sense of security and community.
Religion as a Unifying Force Medieval Christians’ everyday lives were often harsh. Still they could all follow the same path to salvation. Priest and other religious officials administered the SACRAMENTS = important religious ceremonies Through the sacrament of baptism, people became part of the Christian community.
Church Justice The Church provided a unifying set of spiritual beliefs and rituals CANON LAW = law of the Church, in matters such as marriage and religious practices. Popes used the threat of excommunication to wield power over political leaders.
Church Justice If the king was excommunication he would be denied salvation. Excommunication of a king also released his vassals from their duties to him.
The Church and the Holy Roman Empire After Charlemagne died, the Holy Roman Empire was the strongest kingdom that rose from the ruins of his empire.
Otto I Allies with the Church The most effective ruler was Otto I. He was crowned king in 936, and modeled himself after his boyhood hero Charlemagne
Otto I Allies with the Church Like Charlemagne, Otto formed a close alliance with the Church. He built his power by gaining the support of the bishops and abbots. Abbots = the heads of monasteries.
Signs of Future Conflicts The German-Italian Empire Otto created was first called the Roman Empire of the German Nation = later known as the Holy Roman Empire. Otto’s attempt to revive Charlemagne's empire caused trouble for the future German leaders.
Signs of Future Conflicts Italian nobles resented German rule. Popes too began to fear the political power that the German emperors held over Italy.
Holy Roman Emperor Clashes with the Pope The focus of this resentment was LAY INVESTITURE = a ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed church officials. Whoever controlled the lay investiture held the real power in naming the bishops.
Holy Roman Emperor Clashes with the Pope The people who controlled the lay investiture were the clergy who the king tried to control. Church reformers felt that bishops shouldn’t be under the power of any king… So in 1075, Pope Gregory VII banned lay investiture.
Holy Roman Emperor Clashes with the Pope Henry VI, immediately called a meeting of the German bishops he had appointed. They sent a letter calling Gregory a “false monk” Gregory then excommunicated Henry VI The German bishops and princes sided with the Pope and Henry tried to make up with the Pope.
Showdown at Canossa Henry traveled to the Italian town of Canossa to apologize. The Pope was obligated to forgive any sinner who begged so humbly. Gregory kept Henry waiting in the snow for three days before ending his excommunication. Henry then quickly began to punish those who rebelled against him
Concordat of Worms Gregory’s and Henry’s successors continued to fight over lay investiture until The successors reached a compromise known as the Concordat of Worms
Concordat of Worms By its terms, the Church alone could grant a bishop his ring and staff, symbols of the church office. Yet the emperor had the power to veto power to prevent the appointment of the bishop.
Renewed Church Conflicts Under Frederick I By 1152, the German princes and kings realized that Germany needed a strong ruler to keep the peace. Frederick I was the first ruler to call his lands the Holy Roman Empire. Though the lands were feudal territories.
Renewed Church Conflict Under Frederick I Frederick invaded the rich cities of Italy. Frederick angered the Pope, who joined the angry merchants who up rose against Frederick. Frederick’s alliance was called the Lombard League.
Renewed Church conflict Under Frederick I Frederick’s army was ultimately defeated and his state eventually dissolved into an array of fragmented feudal states.
German States Remain Separate By getting involved in Italian politics, German kings after Frederick continued to revive Charlemagne's empire and alliance with the Church This led to wars with Italian cities and to further clashes with the pope.